Искореняя несправедливость в городе: история адвокативного планирования
In 1960s advocate planners, as the main ideologist of this movement Paul Davidoff has put it, gave professional support to minority citizens — moderate- and low-income families and inhabitants of ethnic neighborhoods. Next decades the establishment of advocacy planning positions was made within city government agencies. It was called “equity planning”. Today advocacy planning has two dimensions. It’s an approach that can be used in any planning activity — within cabinets of power or in the work with communities. On the other side it’s an ideology that advocates for more just and equal basis of city life and supports poor and disenfranchised.
City planning is a means for determining policy, appropriate policy in a democracy is determined through political debate. The right course of action is always a matter of choice, never of fact. Planners should engage in the political process as advocates of the interests of government and other groups. Intelligent choice about public policy would be aided if different political, social, and economic interests produced city plans. Plural plans rather than a single agency plan should be presented to the public. Politicizing the planning process requires that the planning function be located in either or both the executive and legislative branches and the scope of planning be broadened to include all areas of interest to the public.
The article focuses on analysis of processes of transformation of way of life and of ritual practices people in territorially detached village during succession of generations (a case study of the Yazula village of Ulagan region of the Altai Republic). The research is based on comparison of expeditionary materials of 2003 and 2019 years. Changes of this period resulted to significant growth of “openness” of the village to “outside” world and to accessibility of public informational field for the locals. The author reveals how the “discovering” of the detached local community increases its cultural diversity in everyday life that creates the situation of necessity of self-determination for locals and their families on behavioral level.
This article describes a specific type of urban field research: the commercial-facility location problems as one of the practical problem of geomarketing. The education method presented in the article have been worked out and repeatedly applied during student field practices at the Geographical Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University; its elements — are part of the Vysokovsky Graduate School of Urbanism educational program. By solving simple practical problem (searching for the best location for some facility), students not only gain the skills of field work, but also learn to conduct complete researches on their own. Teaching students a comprehensive analysis of diverse and holistic urban space is the main goal of this method.
The authors examine the processes of internal and international labor migration in Russia. Available sources of statistical information and a survey of studies allow us to define them as quantitatively comparable, but having pronounced regional differences. Despite the gravitation of both internal and international migrants to the largest cities, Russian temporary labor migrants more often go to work in the regions of the North and the East of the country. Russians and foreign migrants complement each other in the regional labor markets rather than compete. The results of the recent research conducted by Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, used in the article, allow us to state that the social and economic effects of international and internal labor migration are similar. At the same time the significance of migration for the economy of households and local budgets in Russia is underestimated.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.