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## Описание статистического анализа данных в оригинальных статьях. Типичные ошибки

Description of the statistical analysis of the data contained in original articles. Typical mistakes

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Formal Concept Analysis, ICFCA 2012, held in Leuven, Belgium in May 2012. The 20 revised full papers presented together with 6 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 68 submissions. The topics covered in this volume range from recent advances in machine learning and data mining; mining terrorist networks and revealing criminals; concept-based process mining; to scalability issues in FCA and rough sets.

This book constitutes the second part of the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Formal Concept Analysis, ICFCA 2012, held in Leuven, Belgium in May 2012. The topics covered in this volume range from recent advances in machine learning and data mining; mining terrorist networks and revealing criminals; concept-based process mining; to scalability issues in FCA and rough sets.

This is a textbook in data analysis. Its contents are heavily influenced by the idea that data analysis should help in enhancing and augmenting knowledge of the domain as represented by the concepts and statements of relation between them. According to this view, two main pathways for data analysis are summarization, for developing and augmenting concepts, and correlation, for enhancing and establishing relations. Visualization, in this context, is a way of presenting results in a cognitively comfortable way. The term *summarization* is understood quite broadly here to embrace not only simple summaries like totals and means, but also more complex summaries such as the principal components of a set of features or cluster structures in a set of entities.

The material presented in this perspective makes a unique mix of subjects from the fields of statistical data analysis, data mining, and computational intelligence, which follow different systems of presentation.

Formal Concept Analysis Research Toolbox (FCART) is an integrated environment for knowledge and data engineers with a set of research tools based on Formal Concept Analysis. FCART allows a user to load structured and unstructured data (including texts with various metadata) from heterogeneous data sources into local data storage, compose scaling queries for data snapshots, and then research classical and some innovative FCA artifacts in analytic sessions.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.