РЕЛИГИОЗНЫЙ ПОИСК И. Г. ФИХТЕ, ИЛИ О НЕУДАЧЕ В ОБОСНОВАНИИ МОРАЛЬНОЙ РЕЛИГИИ
The paper is devoted to the explanation of J. G. Fichte’s views on religion and “divine things” from 1798 to 1802. His intepretation of God as “moral governance of the world” caused misunderstanding of his philosophy by German intellectuals. Fichte was accused of being an atheist and felt himself forced to explain his thought in detail. Te great influence on Fichte’s position had F. H. Jacobi’s theist criticism. It seems that this criticism launched the intellectual “chemical” reaction which transmuted Fichte’s ethical sentimentalism into the religious, and the Kantian worldview into the mystical and metaphysical. Te author concludes that the two main causes of Fichte’s worldview change are 1) inner and outer difficulties of practising of personal moral religion which cannot give neither distinct philosophical and religious world outlook nor psychological support and 2) theoretical incompleteness of the main ideas of the Doctrine of Science and its theory of religion.
The article concentrates on Chicherin, a Russian philosopher and lawyer, and his views on the correlation between liberty, law and morality. The author comments on Chicherin's ideas in the context of other views existing at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries. These are the views of such representatives of the Russian socially political, legal and philosophical ideas as Kavelin, Novgorodtsev, Struve, Alekseev and others, including modern researchers. Special reference is maid to Chicherin and Solovyov's polemics, which is important step in the history of Russian philosophy. Pointing out a constant connection between law and morality, that often complement each other on the basis of common values, Chicherin strongly insisted on differentiating between these notions. He was sure that the only way to a moral ideal was freedom, not an outward compulsion. And our past historical experience is the best confirmation of this idea. The work also focuses on the fact that the peculiarity of Russian law philosophy is its concentration on the questions of morality and law, the attempt of becoming closer to a moral ideal.
Should the loyal citizen obey unlawful laws? What is the relationship between positive law and justice in the context of rapid social change? By which criteria are we to appreciate them? What are the views of professional lawyers, as well as those of different political opinions: conservatives, liberals, and 'left-wingers'? To clarify the unsolved character of this question, and the growing divorce between positive law and the notion of justice in post-Soviet Russia, the author demonstrates the competitive character and variability of strategies for the juridical construction of reality regarding such key parameters as property relations, national identity, state and the political establishment. He presents his own vision of the rational combination of the legitimacy, legality and efficiency of juridical decisions in order to overcome the conflict of law and justice, legality and efficiency, and political reason and the social ideal.
This paper outlines the essential aspects of the Machiavelli’s religious concept. This theory was invented by Machiavelli in 16th century, and played a key role in the formation and development of the Reformation process in Germany. In this work we will try to rediscover Machiavelli’s religious concept, using work of some modern interpreters of his philosophical legacy.
This article deals with the Russian philosopher and lawyer B.N. Chicherin, his views on human nature, its characteristics and purpose. Special attention is paid to liberty as inherent to a person. The author underlines the great importance of philosophic investigations for understanding the contemporary problems of Russia, the development and formation of Russian society.
Proceedings of the 15th UK Workshop on Case-Based Reasoning, Peterhouse College, Cambridge 14th December 2010
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th Industrial Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2012, held in Berlin, Germany in July 2012. The 22 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 97 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on data mining in medicine and biology; data mining for energy industry; data mining in traffic and logistic; data mining in telecommunication; data mining in engineering; theory in data mining; theory in data mining: clustering; theory in data mining: association rule mining and decision rule mining.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.