Идея «живого знания» всеединства С.Л. Франка в контексте трансцендентально-феноменологических исследований оснований сознания
The article deals with the question about the possibility of realization of phenomenological project which aim is to understand the whole content of experience as constituting by consciousness. To achieve the goal of transcendental philosophy – a clear understanding of himself as the subjectivity functioning as primal source – E. Husserl moves from description of things of the intuited surrounding world (life-world) to analysis of successively lower layers of sense accomplishments. In doing so, he faced the impossibility to describe how the primal hyletic configurations that determine the unity of the absolute flow of consciousness are forming in the process of passive genesis. Husserl’s analyses of passive synthesis point to openness of consciousness to alterity. The “alterity” of original unities means that they not only do not require the ego’s activity and therefore seem to be alien to consciousness, but are really alien to it. Paradoxically, while being other to consciousness, primordial unities play a key role in its organization, making possible the structure of the “living present”.
Husserl’s account of consciousness as receptive to what is alien to consciousness creates a basis for comparison of his ideas with the ideas of S.L. Frank. The Russian philosopher argues that a foundation of “transcendental objects” is a “concrete supertemporal all-unity” as absolute being, outside of the relation to which consciousness would be impossible.
As the study shows, the recognition of dependence of consciousness on the pre-conscious layer of subjectivity opens the way of solving the problem of the structure-forming grounds of conscious.