Диспозициональная эффективность: на пересечении диспозиционального и когнитивного подходов
The artcle taps into an approach integratng the dispositonal and social cognitve paradigms of personality under a unifed umbrella. The key element of the dispositonal approach to personality is the concept of traits, i.e. individual combinatons of motves and paterns of behavior that describe and allow to predict one’s actons. On the contrary, cognitve theories of personality emphasize the crucial role of situatonal and contextual factors. For this purpose,
a construct of trait efcacy is introduced being referred to as an aspect of a trait which underscores that an individual
may identfy her or his skills and habits to respond adequately to situatons which exert cues relevant to the given trait.
It is assumed that in certain cases trait efcacy more adequately describes invidual’s behavior including academic success and achievements. 1030 students from a Russian university flled in the Big Five Inventory that measures personality traits (the so called fve-factor model) and the modifed version of the Inventory designated to measure the dispositonal efcacy. The researchers measured the two types of academic achievement, university success at the end of academic terms and Unifed State Exam scores (Russian and math subtests). The traits were shown to correlate strongly with respectve trait efcacy; meanwhile, in terms of mean diﬀerences, each trait was found to diﬀer substantally from its trait efficacy counterpart. Academic achievement indicators correlated weakly with personality traits. Dispositonal efficacy reproduced those correlatons but obtained eﬀects were higher except for the correlaton between diligence and university success. In fve cases out of seven personality traits related indirectly to academic achievement indicators. In other words, these links were mediated by respectve trait efcacy. Theoretcally, compared to personality traits dispositonal efcacy is a more changeable construct that involves acquisiton of personal behavioral schemes and identfcaton therewith. Being a personality trait, dispositonal efcacy is, psychometrically, a product of autobiographic memory. The fndings obtained and corresponding theorisatons promote a further opportunity to contemplate the construct of personality trait in a way of its inner structural diﬀerentaton.