Как возникают новые формы отрицания в калмыцком языке
This paper addresses the issue of shortened form of negative markers in Kalmyk. Mongolic languages
have a very elaborate system of negative markers, partly inherited from the Old / Middle Mongolian negation. The current study is based on the field data from the Ketchenerovsky region, Republic of Kalmykia, as
well as on two corpora (Kalmyk National Corpus and the National Corpus of Kalmyk Language). It presents
a study of negative markers bišǝ and -šǝ and uga andgorespectively. The study shows that there is a distribution of full and constructed version of negative markers. Full forms occur with nouns and in nonverbal
predication while affixes are used mainly in verbal sentences. The distribution is also tied to several pragmatic and modal factors, for example, the marker bišǝis used with future participle ending on -xto express
the emphatic form with modal meaning, while the contracted form -šǝ with this participle is the neutral way
to express negation.