Современные подходы к измерению государственного сектора: методология и эмпирика
This article attempts to estimate the scale of state involvement in Russian economy over time and compare it with other countries. Our unique methodology suggests a set of alternative approaches to measuring 3 independent components: state-owned enterprises (SOEs), state unitary enterprises and public administration sector. Our results reveal the growth of state involvement in economy up to 46% of GDP in 2016. The share of SOEs and public administration in GDP rose from 20.2% and 16.9% in 2006 up to 25.3% and 19.2% in 2016, respectively, by conservative estimates. In cross-country comparison market capitalization, employment and SOEs’ share in GDP are significant and increasing. The share of public administration corresponds to the same estimate for OECD countries, but it is also increasing.
The total state share and its growth can be the evidence of an alarming trend for Russian economy. It is 6%-12% higher than the estimate for most developing countries and, unlike in China or India, it keeps growing. This leads to state expansion in economy, growth of state influence on SOEs and transfer of noneconomic risks to SOEs. Apart from increasing state involvement in added value creation, state plays an active role in reallocation of financial resources and there is some evidence that it is even more significant than state share in creating added value measured by GDP