Миротворчество ООН: обновление принципов, реформирование практики
Article on the formats and directions of reformation of the United Nations peace operations in conflict regions
The paper refers to the issue of the Security Council in the resolution of the international disputes in the presence of the veto right of the five permanent members of the Council and their diverging interests in ongoing armed conflicts. The article provides an analysis of the conclave form of decision-making process. Taking into account the historical experience, the article encourages using the ‘conclave’ format in the Security Council's work in order to provide a subjective right of peace.
The article covers principal provisions of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea. The study focuses on the specifics of acting legal regimes of liability for failing to preserve goods under carriage by sea and shows the necessity to make a uniform legal regulation. The article also shows wide boundaries for applying the new Convention compared to the apllicable one and the liability kept by the carrier for failing to preserve goods and for delaying its delivery. The difference has been given between negotiable and non-negotiable transport documents, and an electronic transport record has been described as an alternative to a «hard copy» document. The article is also supplied with considering issues of period of time for suit, jurisdiction, and arbitration.
UN Convention, regime of liability, expanding scope of action, liability for failing to preserve goods, delay in delivery, transport document, electronic transport record, period of time for suit, jurisdiction, arbitration
UN Security Council resolutions are an important source of law for the international system of combating with money laundering and terrorist financing.
This Action Plan provides a framework for the member States of the region to raise energy efficiency in the housing sector and thus enable them to more effectively address environmental and economic challenges and meet social needs. The Action Plan lists a range of measures aimed at removing barriers to energy efficiency and progressively moving towards a low-energy and ultimately zero-energy and carbon neutral housing sector.
What service did the Italian Armed Forces carry out in their missions outside the area? What role do they play today in the many international contexts in which they are employed? In which legal framework are these missions authorized? This book tries to answer these questions, illustrating to a wider audience the role that our Armed Forces perform abroad. A role aimed at maintaining peace, at stabilizing problematic contexts, at maintaining peace and at restoring hope in areas of the world often overturned by civil wars and inter-ethnic conflicts.
The concept of housing requires a new understanding to effectively address the pressing issues of slums, the urban divide, economic and human development, and climate change. No longer regarded as simply a roof over one's head, housing today plays a crucial role in achieving sustainable development. Sustainable Housing for Sustainable Cities outlines key concepts and considerations underpinning the idea of sustainable housing and provides a comprehensive framework for designing sustainable housing policies and practical actions. Although sustainable housing is often considered from a predominantly green perspective this book advocates a more holistic approach, which recognises the multiple functions of housing as both a physical and socio-cultural system and which seeks to enhance and harmonise the environmental, social, cultural, and economic dimensions of housing sustainability to ensure prosperous residential neighbourhoods and equitable cities.
The decision-making system in international organizations is still very conservative. The composition of the international forums that can generate significant international instruments has not changed for centuries. Only diplomats and representatives of international organizations whose credentials confirmed in a certain way admitted to international decision-making. The only exception to this rule is the International Labor Organization (ILO), which works on the principle of tripartism. The ILO in its work involves not only the representatives of the states, but also representatives of employers and workers from each of the member states of the ILO.
Internet Governance Forum, under the auspices of the UN, UNESCO and the International Telecommunication Union, is established in 2006 on the basis of the World Summit on the Information Society, which is today the world's most authoritative international discussion forum on Internet governance, not fully use their potential in order to best regulation of international Internet governance processes. The basis for this regulation is multistakeholder approach, which consists in a multiplicity of categories of decision-making mechanism, which includes, in addition to the traditional representatives of states and international organizations, civil society, business, academic and technical community, the media, and other interested stakeholders.
This research is expected to provide guidance in improving the global Internet governance arrangements, taking into account the interests of all categories of participants, as well as to establish rules of procedure for decision-making based on multistakeholder-approach in the Internet governance to give the Internet Governance Forum the opportunity to adopt international “soft law” instruments. An example of this is the Draft Charter of rights and principles on the Internet, developed by Dynamic Coalition on Human Rights and the principles of the Internet Governance Forum - a kind of analogue of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights with regard to the Internet. The need to take human rights instruments on the Internet determines the direction of the development of programs and policies in global Internet governance and role of the Internet Governance Forum in these processes.