Фенологические тренды в природе центральной части Русской равнины в условиях современного потепления
The study addresses changes in the phenological characteristics of common birch (silver birch), bird cherry, mountain ash (rowan), and small-leaves lime (linden) in the central part of European Russia (ER) on the basis of multiyear observations of the beginning of the first leaves unfolding phase for birches and the flowering phase for bird cherry, mountain ash, and linden in the period since 1976 and until 2015 (the period of most intense modern warming in Russia). Overall, the current climate change affects the phenology of all these species; however, various species demonstrate spatial and calendar differences in their phenological reactions. Bird cherry and rowan do not demonstrate significant trends in their flowering dates (or weak positive values of the linear trend coefficient) in territories located between 52° and 54° N. To the north and south of that area, the value of the coefficient is negative: up to –1.5 days/10 years for cherry, and up to and 1.0 days/10 years for rowan. However, for linden, the area of positive values extends northwards to 56° N. The discrepancies in the trends of phenological stages and trends of dates of the stable transition of the air temperature across threshold values close to the phenological stages are 2 – 10 for birch, bird cherry and rowan and up to 8–25 times for linden. A similar correlation has been observed between the phenological trends and sums of active temperatures. This demonstrates the work of adaptation homeostatic mechanisms in the plants in response to the climate change.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Papers about natural protection territories
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction