### Article

## Stress-controlled Poisson ratio of a crystalline membrane: Application to graphene

We demonstrate that a key elastic parameter of a suspended crystalline membrane—the Poisson ratio (PR) ν—is a nontrivial function of the applied stress σ and of the system size L, i.e., ν=νL(σ). We consider a generic two-dimensional membrane embedded into space of dimensionality 2+dc. (The physical situation corresponds to dc=1.) A particularly important application of our results is to freestanding graphene. We find that at a very low stress, when the membrane exhibits linear response, the PR νL(0) decreases with increasing system size L and saturates for L→∞ at a value which depends on the boundary conditions and is essentially different from the value ν=−1/3 previously predicted by the membrane theory within a self-consistent scaling analysis. By increasing σ, one drives a sufficiently large membrane (with the length L much larger than the Ginzburg length) into a nonlinear regime characterized by a universal value of PR that depends solely on dc, in close connection with the critical index η controlling the renormalization of bending rigidity. This universal nonlinear PR acquires its minimum value νmin=−1 in the limit dc→∞, when η→0. With the further increase of σ, the PR changes sign and finally saturates at a positive nonuniversal value prescribed by the conventional elasticity theory. We also show that one should distinguish between the absolute and differential PR (ν and νdiff, respectively). While coinciding in the limits of very low and very high stress, they differ in general: ν≠νdiff. In particular, in the nonlinear universal regime, νdiff takes a universal value which, similarly to the absolute PR, is a function solely of dc (or, equivalently, of η) but is different from the universal value of ν. In the limit of infinite dimensionality of the embedding space, dc→∞(i.e., η→0), the universal value of νdiff tends to −1/3, at variance with the limiting value −1 of ν. Finally, we briefly discuss generalization of these results to a disordered membrane.

The virial and the Hellmann–Feynman theorems for massless Dirac electrons in a solid are derived and analyzed using generalized continuity equations and scaling transformations. Boundary conditions imposed on the wave function in a finite sample are shown to break the Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian resulting in additional terms in the theorems in the forms of boundary integrals. The thermodynamic pressure of the electron gas is shown to be composed of the kinetic pressure, which is related to the boundary integral in the virial theorem and arises due to electron reflections from the boundary, and the anomalous pressure, which is specific for electrons in solids. Connections between the kinetic pressure and the properties of the wave function on the boundary are drawn. The general theorems are illustrated by examples of uniform electron gas, and electrons in rectangular and circular graphene samples. The analogous consideration for ordinary massive electrons is presented for comparison.

The optical properties of graphene-based structures are discissed. The universal optical absorption in graphene is reviewed. The photonic band structure and transmission of graphene-based photonic crystals are considered. The spectra of plasmon and magnetoplasmon excitations in graphene layers and grapehene nanoribbons (GNR) are analyzed. The localization of the electromagnetic waves in the photonic crystals with defects, which play a role of waveguide, is studied. Properties of plasmons and magnetoplasmons in graphene layers and GNR are reviewed. The surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation with the net amplification of surface plasmons in the doped GNR is described. The minimal population inversion per unit area needed for the net amplification of plasmons in a doped GNR is reported. The various applications of graphene for photonics and optoelectronics are reviewed. The tunability of photonic and plasmonic properties of various graphene structures by doping achieved by applying the gate voltage is discussed.

Graphene synthesis technology on substrates is promising, as is compatible with existing CMOS-technology. Knowledge about how to affect the substrate of choice for structural and electronic properties of graphene is important and opens up new opportunities in targeted influence on the properties of this unique material. Specialized measuring system was established to measure the galvanomagnetic characteristics of substrates multigraphene. Its structure and the measurement results are presented in the paper. For surface resistivity measurements we obtained samples were higher than that of natural graphite, but much lower than for samples of colloidal suspensions.

Supercapacitors based on carbon nanomaterials are attracting much attention because of their high capacitance enabled by large specific surface area. The introduction of heteroatoms such as N or O enhances the specific capacitance of these materials. However, the mechanisms that lead to the increase in the specific capacitance are not yet well-studied. In this Letter, we demonstrate an effective method for modification of the surface of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) using DC plasma in atmospheres of O2, N2, and their mixture. Processing in the plasma leads to the incorporation of ∼4 atom % nitrogen and ∼10 atom % oxygen atoms. Electrochemical measurements reveal that CNWs functionalized with oxygen groups are characterized by higher capacitance. The specific capacitance for samples with oxygen reaches 8.9 F cm−3 at a scan rate of 20 mV s−1. In contrast, the nitrogen-doped samples demonstrate a specific capacitance of 4.4 F cm−3 at the same scan rate. The mechanism of heteroatom incorporation into the carbon lattice is explained using density functional theory calculations.

Plasma functionalization of graphene is one of the facile ways to tune its doping level without the need for wet chemicals making graphene photoluminescent. Microscopic corrugations in the twodimensional structure of bilayer CVD graphene having a quasi-free-suspended top layer, such as graphene ripples, nanodomes, and bubbles, may significantly enhance local reactivity leading to etching effects on exposure to plasma. Here, we discovered that bilayer CVD graphene treated with nitrogen plasma exhibits efficient UV-green-red emission, where the excitation at 250 nm leads to photoluminescence with the peaks at 390, 470, and 620 nm, respectively. By using Raman scattering and spectroscopic ellipsometry, we investigated doping effects induced by oxygen or nitrogen plasma on the optical properties of single- and bilayer CVD graphene. The surface morphology of the samples was studied by atomic force microscopy. It is revealed that the top sheet of bilayer graphene becomes perforated after the treatment by nitrogen plasma. Our comprehensive study indicates that the dominant green emission is associated with the edge defect structure of perforated graphene filled with nitrogen. The discovered efficient emission appearing in nitrogen plasma treated perforated graphene may have a significant potential for the development of advanced optoelectronic materials.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.