Анализ муниципальных образований в контексте развития федеральных особо охраняемых природных территорий
Creating federal specially protected natural areas (FSPNA) is one of the most effective forms of environmental management, which is able to maintain biological and landscape diversity. But the process of FSPNA territory expansion should be governed by a comprehensive assessment of the need to increase the area withdrawn from economic land use. The assessment includes not only the study of territory’s biodiversity value, but also a comprehensive socio-economic analysis of the area under consideration. Using methods of statistical analysis and descriptive statistics we explored the possibility of Rosstat municipalities’ data and other publicly available data, to evaluate the effects of FSPNA creation and development. A methodology for constructing an integral characteristic of a municipality is proposed to develop a socio-economic justification for the organization (or development) of FSPNA. The integral characteristic is built on the basis of the principle component analysis, which is used to assess the sustainable development level of the territories and for data visualization. Nizhny Novgorod region was taken as a research object, since it has a unique set of ecosystems located on its territory. Municipalities of the Nizhny Novgorod region, which are promising for the nature protection activitiesб including development of FSPNA, have been identified. They include a number of municipal entities that previously confirmed their willingness to cooperate. The results of the work can be applied in carrying out similar studies in other regions of the Russian Federation.
The paper is focused on the problem of balanced information and communication technologies development in modern society and its measures. Existing indices allow estimating the progress of this development, but they are mostly constructed for between countries comparison. At the lower level, we face the problem of different data set structure that does not allow us to use same indices immediately. Another problem is a lack of measures that provide both the estimation of the overall progress in ICT and the progress in its particular aspects at the regional level. Additional attention should be paid to the possible increase of regional differentiation in order to prevent its transformation into extreme form of digital divide. We propose the model in the form of hierarchical system of indices that includes the advantages of information development measurement in particular aspects and as a whole. Sub-indices in the system are just orthogonal, and widely used principal component analysis is not functional for their aggregation. That is why a measure of closeness of the aggregate indicator to the best possible value is used to create the main index. The output oriented data envelopment analysis is used along with the aggregate indicator construction technique to compare the positions of the most advanced regions. We also introduce the method of measuring the differentiation in some aspects of information and communication development to assess the dynamics of this differentiation. The results of the study can be used to stimulate progress in information and communication development that prevents an excessive increase in regional differentiation.
The cahpter deals with the cross-regional variety of entrepreneurial activity in Russia and the factors which may determine it, basing on the results of a representative survey of ca. 56 000 adults in the regions of Russin (2011)/ It is shown that the quality of the entrepreneurial activity of population (prevalence of the opportunity driven entrepreneurship) does not correlate with the density of already existing SMEs as well as with the level of unemployment; but it correlates with with the level of urbanization as well as with the level of the well-being of population of rerspective regions. Besides, the regional TEA positively correlate with the perceived opportunity and the self-efficacy of adults i respective regions.
The measurement of quality of life on municipality level is necessary for effective economic policy performance evaluation. The article presents the results of a study of municipal statistics data which is aimed at finding economic indicators related to quality of life within municipalities. Following an established methodology, the authors analyze available information on households’ income, consumption and wealth. The authors have examined open municipal statistics sources and found significant limitations of them. A number of indicators of wage, the retail trade volume and housing is suggested for municipal quality of life index to be constructed allowing for possible access to the data.
Persistently among the leading regions of the country since the 1990s, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, like most of Russia’s resource abundant regions, was resilient in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, despite its exposure to international capital flows. In such resource abundant regions, long-run efficient and cooperative budget planning and performance largely account for their dynamic resilience.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.