The Ethical Challenge for Sociology in the Face of Global Modernity: toward Solidarity-Oriented and Ethically Contextualized Practice
Sociology is facing difficult times: fragmentation within and between regional,
national and international academic communities remains high while global
interdependence and instability increase generating societal threats of unprecedented
scale (progressing inequality, migration, ecological, political and economic crises).
Ethical issues are very important for comprehending both: processes within sociology
and transformations in the world around. Thus, we postulate the global ethical challenge
for sociology, which requires: first, formulating the ethical stance of a sociologist
towards the objects of disciplinary inquiry and the potentially involved social groups
and, second, elaborating research tools adequate for studying the ethical dimension of
the complex social reality. We demonstrate that dominating discourses in the current
professional communities are largely inadequate and cannot effectively address this
challenge. Drawing on Pitirim Sorokin’s theoretical heritage, as well as on John Meyer
and Volker Schmidt ideas, we propose an alternative project of global sociology,
emphasizing, first, solidarity-oriented and ethically contextualized sociological communication
with various extra-academic audiences; and, second, sociologists’ ethical
competence in exploring various localities and dimensions of global modernity with its
progressively intersecting different (and sometimes contrasting) ethical systems.
This paper begins by outlining the two-sided ‘ethical challenge’ that international sociology faces in the 21st century. First, formulating the ethical stance of a sociologist towards the subject of disciplinary inquiry and the potentially involved social groups. Second, elaborating the adequate research tools for studying the ethical dimension of globalizing social reality. We conduct a critical analysis of the current literature on these issues from the Global Sociology perspective. We show that the ‘value-involved’ Global Sociology is the only possible mode of successful and appealing international disciplinary practice. However, existing ‘value-involved’ approaches are Eurocentric by nature and lack sensitivity to the ethically diverse global social reality. We propose the conceptual framing of ‘Ethically Responsible Global Sociology’ as a new vision of our discipline in the global world.
“The Futures We Want: Global Sociology and the Struggles for a Better World. View from Russia” is a collection of more than 50 papers of Russian sociologists from different regions of the Russian Federation, from Austria and USA. The papers present achievements of the Regional Affiliations and Research Committees of the Russian Society of Sociologists, which are dealing with problems of social life under conditions of the processes of the transformation, modernization and the prospects of development of the Russian society. In the chapters the book considers the methodological problems of contemporary sociology; the problems of the youth, education and labor market; the important sociological aspects of Health and Ecology; the sociology of professions and professionalism; actual problems of the social communications and Internet opportunities, religion and so on are in a focus of theoretical discussions of the social sciences.
The book will be of interests for scholars, scientists, postgraduate students, students, lecturers and teachers and for the experts in the sphere of the social forecasting and analyzing.
The book considers how to make the methodology of business ethics more scientific, especially its normative branch. Storchevoy explores the attempts of economic theory to contribute to the scientific normative analysis of economic behavior, particularly the welfare economics of 1910-1950 and methodological discussions of economics and ethics from 1980-2015. He then examines the development of the methodological structure of business ethics in general since the 1980s and the scientific validity of normative business ethics, including stakeholder theory, the separation thesis, integral social contract theory, corporate social responsibility, virtue ethics and other frameworks. He concludes by suggesting an additional step to make business ethics a more systematic discipline by developing a typology of moral issues and dilemmas. Business Ethics as a Science will be a thought-provoking resource for students and practitioners of business ethics and economists alike.
This paper studies “informal” new media uses, from a critical and empirical perspective, by employing relevant literature on the promises of new media and everyday life culture, and by interviewing various people engaged with different in-formal new media/ICT activities. By new media and ICTs, I refer to portable, mass-produced and consumed digital devices (for example, tablets, smartphones, or laptops among other), and a variety of software programs and applications that enable individuals to do things on their own or with others. I am also including digital portals, platforms, the so-called social media, communica-tional networks, as well as peer-to-peer structures and open-source/free software systems and licenses enabled by digital technologies. These elements bring im-portant changes to social life; they alter the ways in which we perceive the world, the ways we work, the ways we inform ourselves and learn new skills, and the ways that politics are performed by authorities and by citizens.
The aim of the study is to consider the concept of social responsibility of business (further - SRB) from the perspective of the theory of stakeholders.
The methodological base of the study is the theory of stakeholders developed by R.E. Freeman, as well as the concepts of social responsibility of business considered by modern researches in relation to stakeholders («corporate egoism», «corporate altruism», «reasonable egoism»). The main method of the empirical research is a multivariate content analysis of 200 Russian publications on the issues of SRB for the period from 2013 to 2018.
The results of the study demonstrate that the state and society are identified as key stakeholders in the aspect of social responsibility of business by Russian researchers, and the contradictory nature of relations with them in the context of SRB is noted. It is concluded that despite the declared significance of all those concerned parties, in Russian realities organizations have the opportunity to satisfy the interests predominantly of key financial stakeholders.
The prospect of the study consists in a comprehensive understanding of the discourse around the issues of social responsibility of business in the circles of modern Russian researchers, including not only the aspect of stakeholders, but also such areas in the study of the SRB as the conceptual framework, assessment of foreign experience, standardization and reporting, etc.
Key words: social responsibility of business; stakeholder theory; stakeholders; state; society; employee.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.