Comparison of Hot Spot Formation in NbN and MoN Thin Superconducting Films After Photon Absorption
In superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPD), the efficiency of local suppression of superconductivity and hotspot formation is controlled by diffusivity and electron-phonon interaction time. Here, we selected a material, 3.6-nm-thick MoNx film, which features diffusivity close to those of NbN traditionally used for SSPD fabrication, but with electron-phonon interaction time an order of magnitude larger. In MoN∞ detectors, we study the dependence of detection efficiency on bias current, photon energy, and strip width, and compare it with NbN SSPD. We observe nonlinear current-energy dependence in MoNx SSPD and more pronounced plateaus in dependences of detection efficiency on bias current, which we attribute to longer electron-phonon interaction time.
The article considers the resistance value of the parties in negotiations and mediation, are the main reasons for resistance. And offer methods of work with resistance aimed at the effective conclusion of the negotiations.
These proceedings have been written in an attempt to communicate the major purpose of the NATO Advanced ResearchWorkshop (ARW), 2013, that is, to bring to light the possibilities of performance, based on the actual level, of the everpromising THz (terahertz) technology, a kind of Araba Fenice, not yet known tomost technical operators, especially its appeal in security applications. To achieve this, the ARWhas invited highly experienced scientists with expertise in THz science and technology and its application areas. We begin with the consideration that the risk of mass murder due to terroristic attacks is on the rise, thus posing a threat for security in the civil and military world. To counter this problem, we look at one of the most appealing, newly emerging, technologies that is based on the THz detection of explosives and other forms of threats. However, operational difficulties (both for THz sensors and sources), especially regarding size, complexity of use, overall cost, and the need of very low temperatures for sensors, strongly limit the application of this technology. To find solutions to these and related issues, we invited expert scientists to present review papers on the most advanced sensors and sources based on THz technology, especially for security system applications. The ARW has been conferred the major task of describing the most advanced technologies, in terms of identifying their operational strengths and weaknesses, forecasting the best technological solutions to overcome the actual operational limits, and suggesting to the NATO SPS (Science for Peace and Security) Division the most reliable ways to proceed for future developments. To achieve a broad evaluation of the above aspects, a questionnaire on various key points with regard to the actual performance and possible future developments in the field of THz science, technology, and applications has been discussed.
Technology mining (TM) helps to acquire intelligence about the evolution of research and development (R&D), technologies, products, and markets for various STI areas and what is likely to emerge in the future by identifying trends. The present chapter introduces a methodology for the identification of trends through a combination of “thematic clustering” based on the co-occurrence of terms, and “dynamic term clustering” based on the correlation of their dynamics across time. In this way, it is possible to identify and distinguish four patterns in the evolution of terms, which eventually lead to (i) weak signals of future trends, as well as (ii) emerging, (iii) maturing, and (iv) declining trends. Key trends identified are then further analyzed by looking at the semantic connections between terms identified through TM. This helps to understand the context and further features of the trend. The proposed approach is demonstrated in the field photonics as an emerging technology with a number of potential application areas.
Existence of the problem of “the protester” within the legal political discourse serves as a proof of a constant human strive towards broadening of their civil rights and liberties. The degree of these liberties directly depends on the definition of the political regime and the existing legal system that motivates a person to broaden their liberties, as well as serving as a form of repression that limits the rights and liberties of a person.“The protester” is viewed differently within various legal discourses, which testifies of the existing difference in perception of the subject of liberty that pertains to the diversity of the cultural, political and legal traditions.The author tends to believe that the image of “the protester”, as the society’s right to liberty and demonstration of a protest is differently legitimized by one or another cultural tradition, which reflects in the amount of their rights and liberties that are allocated to them by the legal discourse.The forming of a certain tendency for protest, its technologies and aesthetics completely depends on the definition of the political regime that formulates specific requirements for the format of liberty within the framework of legal discourse.
This book presents research dedicated to solving scientific and technological problems in many areas of electronics, photonics and renewable energy. Progress in information and renewable energy technologies requires miniaturization of devices and reduction of costs, energy and material consumption. The latest generation of electronic devices is now approaching nanometer scale dimensions; new materials are being introduced into electronics manufacturing at an unprecedented rate; and alternative technologies to mainstream CMOS are evolving. The low cost of natural energy sources have created economic barriers to the development of alternative and more efficient solar energy systems, fuel cells and batteries.
Nanotechnology is widely accepted as a source of potential solutions in securing future progress for information and energy technologies. Nanoscale Materials and Devices for Electronics, Photonics and Solar Energy features chapters that cover the following areas: atomic scale materials design, bio- and molecular electronics, high frequency electronics, fabrication of nanodevices, magnetic materials and spintronics, materials and processes for integrated and subwave optoelectronics, nanoCMOS, new materials for FETs and other devices, nanoelectronics system architecture, nano optics and lasers, non-silicon materials and devices, chemical and biosensors,quantum effects in devices, nano science and technology applications in the development of novel solar energy devices, and fuel cells and batteries.
In this article. the author tries to argue about how you can consider Soviet culture monolithic and not suggesting for the artist and the intellectual for any deviations from the official line.
It would seem that the totalitarian regime creates all the condition for eliminating the independent search for the individual style, nevertheless, in the depths of a totalitarian culture, resistance practice may appear.
The author gives a number of examples of such resistance in Soviet culture.
This article explores protest tactics in Russian cities, stressing the liminalityof spatial contestation practices. In this authoritarian context, spatial contestation typically has a liminal character, where citizens employ strategic ambiguity of their actionsvis-a-vis (a) legal regulations, (b) official discourse, and (c) transcripts of legitimate beha-viour. Showing how urbanites develop creative and subversive infrapolitical forms ofresistance, the article contributes an analysis of the ways in which public space in thecity can be appropriated from below, temporary protest communities formed and activecitizenship claimed under non-democratic regime conditions.
The political process is a constant interaction between the power and opposition. The political process is a constant clash between the formal and informal, between direct speech and metaphors. Power always makes sense only if there is resistance. The power resistance is balanced in favor of its dialectical opposition. Practice protests are taking place at all political regimes, but not always the possibility of resistance are similar. In some political systems interlocutor on government and realization of the right to revolt are an essential political and moral principle. In other cases, in dictatorships, the right to revolt conquered by a hard struggle, not always being efficient and not always getting massive. The author shows how, depending on the cultural traditions of the images may vary resistance. Indeed, the figure of the rebellious person differently perceived in the political landscape. The discourse of resistance can be filled by individual practitioners of dissent, as well as robust tradition of protest. Relations between the power and rebellious man shows and interpreted by the author in a variety of subjects belonging to different cultures. From the point of view of the author, in the practices of rebellious man in his quest for freedom and demonstrate their own position, you can find both special and general, is equally emphasizes the integrity of the political process.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.