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Партийные институты и левая оппозиция после XV съезда ВКП (б) (на примере Уральской области)

PolitBook. 2018. № 1. С. 79-92.
Шабалин В. В.

The article addresses the forms and technics of political battles inside the Bolshevik Party. The author contributes to the reconstruction of the encounter between party institutions (control commissions and committees) and the Left Opposition (Bolshevik-Leninists) in the Ural region, which has not been exhaustively discussed by scholars. He shows in detail how the Left made a new attempt to influence the party and the working class in 1928-1930. By this period, the party bureaucracy just repelled the United Opposition, and the revival of struggle against the defeated Bolshevik-Leninists was unexpected. This time, the new round of the battle was complicated by the deterioration of living standards that made the slogans of opposition more attractive among people. The Left could not take the advantage of the situation and lost because of the following reasons: inside conflicts among the Bolshevik-Leninists, the actions of the OGPU, and the efforts made by the party apparatus. The party institutions had already gathered considerable information about their opponents and developed effective methods of fight that could help to block the influence of Trotsky’s supporters. The total purge among party members, held in 1929, became the new form of identifying any opposition. The legal evaluation of the Bolshevik-Leninists’ activity was reconsidered, and their groups were defined as anti-Soviet. That allowed not only the party but also the state subject the Bolshevik-Leninists to severe repression. Thus, the actions of party institutions became one of the essential factors in the defeat of the Bolshevik-Leninists in 1928-1930.