Факторы научной продуктивности и проблемы ее оценки
The article is a review of a research into academic productivity factors and approaches to its evaluation. The search for mechanisms of evaluating and managing academic staff productivity is an important challenge for research administrators and academic funds executives. Existing publications on academic productivity cover mainly two aspects: 1) methodology of productivity measurement and 2) factors negatively and positively influencing productivity of academic staff. This article presents main ideas of bibliometric approach to productivity measurement, different productivity indicators are classified and discussed. Factors influencing productivity are subdivided into three levels: individual (age, cooperation with colleagues, interdisciplinarity, internationalization, mobility and inbreeding, educational background and initial professional experience; marital status, gender); organizational (financing, organizational culture, bonus system, access to resources, prestige of an organization) and institutional (level of economic development of the country, political factors, religion). The article discusses an opportunity of considering different factors in administrative policy.
This paper introduces a systematic technology trend monitoring (TTM) methodology based on an analysis of bibliometric data. Among the key premises for developing a methodology are: (1) the increasing number of data sources addressing different phases of the STI development, and thus requiring a more holistic and integrated analysis; (2) the need for more customized clustering approaches particularly for the purpose of identifying trends; and (3) augmenting the policy impact of trends through gathering future-oriented intelligence on emerging developments and potential disruptive changes. Thus, the TTM methodology developed combines and jointly analyzes different datasets to gain intelligence to cover different phases of the technological evolution starting from the ‘emergence’ of a technology towards ‘supporting’ and ‘solution’ applications and more ‘practical’ business and market-oriented uses. Furthermore, the study presents a new algorithm for data clustering in order to overcome the weaknesses of readily available clusterization tools for the purpose of identifying technology trends. The present study places the TTM activities into a wider policy context to make use of the outcomes for the purpose of Science, Technology and Innovation policy formulation, and R&D strategy making processes. The methodology developed is demonstrated in the domain of “semantic technologies”.
The article discusses the establishment of professional standards across community of German universities philosophers. The paper analyses a nature of public scandals based on the taking away the right to teach at universities such well-known intellectuals such as David Friedrich Strauss (1835), Ludwig Feuerbach (1836), Bruno Bauer (1842), and Kuno Fischer (1852). I propose a thesis that repressive measures were the result of conflicts related to the methodological upgrading of the discipline. I show that the severity of social controversy was caused by the peculiarities of the requirements to academic employees. The development of professional solidarity during the second half of 19th century helped smooth the severity of labor disputes, which, however, did not protect the academic community of ideological pressure by Nazi regime.
The Global Future of Higher Education and the Academic Profession focuses on the all-important emerging BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) nations by analyzing the academic profession and particularly salaries and contracts. The professoriate is key to the success of any academic system, and this is the first book to carefully analyze academic systems and the academic profession.
The academic profession must be adequately paid, and appointments to academic jobs must be based on merit and provide an effective career path for the 'best and brightest' to be attracted to the profession. The BRICs show a variety of approaches to academic careers—and none provide globally competitive salaries. China and Russia, in particular, pay academics poorly. Using purchasing power parity, this book is able to accurately compare the actual purchasing power of the academic profession. The book also analyzes how professors are appointed and promoted.
While the BRICs may be emerging global economic powers, their academic systems still face significant challenges.
“Academic inbreeding”—involving the appointment of faculty members who graduated from the institution employing them—is considered a small and peripheral aspect of the academic profession but is quite widespread globally. This paper analyzes the nature of inbreeding and its impact on universities. Data from eight countries where inbreeding is widespread are analyzed in order to examine the perceived impact of the phenomenon on academics and universities. Our analysis reveals that while inbreeding has deleterious effects on universities, it is widely perceived as a “normal” part of academic life—and some positive aspects are evident.