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## What humankind can expect with an inversion of Earth's magnetic field: threats real and imagined

Earth's global magnetic field generated by an internal dynamo mechanism has been continuously changing on different time scales since its formation. Paleodata indicate that relatively long periods of evolutionary changes can be replaced by quick magnetic inversions. Based on observations, Earth's magnetic field is currently weakening and the magnetic poles are shifting, possibly indicating the beginning of the inversion process. This paper invokes Gauss coefficients to approximate the behavior of Earth's magnetic field components over the past 100 years. Using the extrapolation method, it is estimated that the magnetic dipole component will vanish by the year 3600 and at that time the geomagnetic field will be determined by a smaller value of a quadrupole magnetic component. A numerical model is constructed which allows evaluating and comparing both galactic and solar cosmic ray fluxes in Earth's magnetosphere and on its surface during periods of dipole or quadrupole domination. The role of the atmosphere in absorbing particles of cosmic rays is taken into account. An estimate of the radiation danger to humans is obtained for the ground level and for the International Space Station altitude of km. It is shown that in the most unfavorable, minimum field interval of the inversion process, the galactic cosmic ray flux increases by no more than a factor of three, implying that the radiation danger does not exceed the maximum permissible dose. Thus, the danger of magnetic inversion periods generally should not have fatal consequences for humans and nature as a whole, despite dramatically changing the structure of Earth's magnetosphere.

The paper presents a formalism and a tool for modelling and analysis of distributed real-time systems of mobile agents. For that we use a time extension of our Resource Driven Automata Nets (TRDA-nets) formalism. A TRDA-net is a two-level system. The upper level represents distributed environment locations with a net of active resources. On the lower level agents are modeled by extended finite state machines, asynchronously consuming/producing shared resources through input/output system ports (arcs of the system net). We demonstrate modelling facilities of the formalism and show that specific layers of TRDA-nets can be translated into Timed Automata, as well as into Time Petri nets, thus TRDA-nets integrate merits of both formalisms.

The main target of the IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS-2013) is to exchange experiences between scientists and technologies of Eastern and Western Europe, as well as North America and other parts of the world, in the field of design, design automation and test of electronic circuits and systems. EWDTS’13 covers the following topics:

• Analog, Mixed-Signal and RF Test

• Analysis and Optimization

• EDA Tools for Design and Test

• Failure Analysis, Defect and Fault

• Modeling & Fault Simulation

• Power Issues in Testing

• Reliability of Digital Systems

• Thermal, Timing and Electrostatic Analysis of SoCs and Systems on Board

These are the proceedings of the International Workshop on Petri Nets and Software Engineering (PNSE’16) in Torun, Poland, June 20–21, 2016. It is a co-located event of • Petri Nets 2016 – the 37th International Conference on Applications and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency and • ACSD 2016 – the 16th International Conference on Application of Concurrency to System Design. More information about the workshop can be found at http://www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/TGI/events/pnse16/ For the successful realization of complex systems of interacting and reactive software and hardware components the use of a precise language at different stages of the development process is of crucial importance. Petri nets are becoming increasingly popular in this area, as they provide a uniform language supporting the tasks of modeling, validation and verification. Their popularity is due to the fact that Petri nets capture fundamental aspects of causality, concurrency and choice in a natural and mathematically precise way without compromising readability. The use of Petri nets (P/T-nets, colored Petri nets and extensions) in the formal process of software engineering, covering modeling, validation and verification, is presented as well as their application and tools supporting the disciplines mentioned above.

These are the proceedings of the International Workshop on Petri Nets and Software Engineering (PNSE’13) and the International Workshop on Modeling and Business Environments (ModBE’13) in Milano, Italy, June 24–25, 2013. These are co-located events of Petri Nets 2013, the 34th international conference on Applications and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency.

PNSE'13 presents the use of Petri Nets (P/T-Nets, Coloured Petri Nets and extensions) in the formal process of software engineering, covering modelling, validation, and veriﬁcation, as well as their application and tools supporting the disciplines mentioned above.

ModBE’13 provides a forum for researchers from interested communities to investigate, experience, compare, contrast and discuss solutions for modeling in business environments with Petri nets and other modeling techniques.

An approach to integration of information systems and modeling systems is suggested. It is based on the DSM-platform MetaLanguage allowing to create modeling languages and domain models and to define model transformations.

Tools of the DSM-platform MetaLanguage for creation of domain specific languages and for multilevel modeling are described. The transformations definition facility provides lower labor consumption for languages development and for model transformations.

1. Description of the problem. Instrumental analysis makes it possible to find the arguments of adjudication on the bounders and structure of corpus delicti, its correlation to criminal and filling-up legislation. 2. Initial theses. Corpus delicti is regarded as that expressed in criminal law doctrine result of reorganization of orders of criminal law into other practically necessary form. That happens in the process of theory and practical experience accumulation. The construction of corpus delicti is transformed for practical needs, textually expressed system of features, regulated by criminal law and characterizing deeds as a crime of a definite type. Correlation of construction of corpus delicti with law and doctrine. Corpus delicti, its algorithm. Transition from law regulations to corpus delicti can be done: 1) prog-nostically; 2) within constant analysis of law; 3) in the process of law application. 3. Stages of instrumental building of corpus delicti: prognostic, doctrinal, law applicatory. Instrumental approach to corpus delicti includes within each stage: 1) based on criminal law decision of classification of corpus delicti and its borders; 2) objective description of a factual model; 3) acception of meaning correlated with legal notions and constructions; 4) choice of the construction of the corpus delicti and disposal of characteristics; 5) verification of legitimacy, necessity and adequacy of foundation. 4. Instrumental analysis of disputable questions of understanding and application of constructions of corpus delicti. A. Functions and purposes of application of construction of corpus delicti. Functions of corpus delicti: a) modeling; b) communicative; c) identificatory; d) technological. B. Contents of corpus delicti. Contents of corpus delicti as it is traditionally regarded does not correspond to indications of crime, does not characterize features of social danger; sign of danger of penalty also does go into corpus delicti. Two variants are proposed for the discussion: widening of the borders of corpus delicti by means of introduction of signs of social danger and signs, defining individualization of penalty and to limitate corpus delicti by characteristic of criminally punished act, separating it from contents of guilt and contents of social danger. C. Structure of corpus delicti. There are two problems: division of elements of crime seems to be extremely harsh and inadequate - it is expedient to include signs of special and time limits of act, causal links, crossing signs of objective and subjective sides, first of all consequences and an object of crime, into the structure of corpus delicti. Forms of committing a criminally punished act is a crime commitment in complicity, ideal system, not finished crime.

Discusses modeling of semiconductor components on printed circuit boards by electrostatic discharges.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.

Let G be a semisimple algebraic group whose decomposition into the product of simple components does not contain simple groups of type A, and P⊆G be a parabolic subgroup. Extending the results of Popov [7], we enumerate all triples (G, P, n) such that (a) there exists an open G-orbit on the multiple flag variety G/P × G/P × . . . × G/P (n factors), (b) the number of G-orbits on the multiple flag variety is finite.

I give the explicit formula for the (set-theoretical) system of Resultants of m+1 homogeneous polynomials in n+1 variables