"Убеждение" и спор в Древнем Китае
The article reveals the differences between such intellectual procedures as persuasion and dispute. The author analyzes argumentative practice and theory in various philosophical schools, especially in moism.
The collection reflects the discussion of the bill on mediation in labour disputes recently proposed in Turkey. The discussion was organised in the form of an international conference held by the Turkish Association of Labour Law and Social Security Law and the Turkish Confederation of Employers Associations.
The article is devoted to the study of the theological article as a representative of theoretical theological discourse. In the article, the determinants of this kind of discourse are singled out, determinants viewed as its key features enhancing the argumentative effect.
The article argues that political texts should be view as both reflecting current social and political reality and cunstructing it at the same time through what can be called biased interpretations. The article analyses a number of language choices in political texts that can lead to construction of biased interpretations and add to creation of so called political myths.
Celebrity endorsement is omnipresent. However, despite its prevalence, it is unclear why celebrities are more persuasive than (equally attractive) non-famous endorsers. The present study investigates which processes underlie the effect of fame on product memory and purchase intention by the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. We find an increase in activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) underlying the processing of celebrity–product pairings. This finding suggests that the effectiveness of celebrities stems from a transfer of positive affect from celebrity to product. Additional neuroimaging results indicate that this positive affect is elicited by the spontaneous retrieval of explicit memories associated with the celebrity endorser. Also, we demonstrate that neither the activation of implicit memories of earlier exposures nor an increase in attentional processing is essential for a celebrity advertisement to be effective. By explaining the neural mechanism of fame, our results illustrate how neuroscience may contribute to a better understanding of consumer behavior.
The book presents the results of the study of the problem of correctness of justification and effectiveness of beliefs in the legal and moral arguments relating to the field of practical reasoning about actions. The problem of justification and belief in law and morality affects the modeling, evaluation, substantive content and linguistic-speech design of processes and procedures of argumentation specific to law and morality and reflect the current state of research in the field of analysis of argumentation and rational behavior. The set of solutions to this problem covers four aspects: substantive, procedural-legal, procedural and cognitive, and consists in the construction of integrative models of argumentation, summarizing the results of the theory of argumentation, law, ethics, logical and pragmatic theories, artificial intelligence and cognitive science. The proposed solutions to the problem of justification and belief in law and morality are designed to demonstrate how rational agents – participants in legal disputes and moral discussions carry out argumentation in practice, what are the criteria for its evaluation, what is the heuristic and practical value of formal methods of its modeling, what role cognitive science and artificial intelligence play in it. The research results will find application in the development of social e-services (e-democracy, e-justice, etc.), social Informatics will contribute to increasing the availability of legal services, the development of civil society, especially the social responsibility of people and institutions, the consolidation of traditional East European societies moral values, can be used for scientific research and education. The book discusses the logical foundations, formal models, cognitive mechanisms, pragmatic aspects, as well as the history of the formation of practical arguments in the field of law and morality, presents an analysis of real cases, including resonance (Breivik case, Markin case). The monograph is addressed to philosophers, lawyers, practicing lawyers, specialists in the field of artificial intelligence, management and management, as well as a wide range of interested readers who want to get acquainted with the features of the structure of reasoning and evaluation of arguments in the field of law and morality, the behavior of rational agents in the conditions of norms, the history of the formation of rules and the tradition of moral and legal reasoning. No special knowledge is required to read the book.
The article formulates the modular conception of discourse. On this basis, coordinating conjunctions and connectors are opposed as relational elements of syntactic and pragmatic discursive modules respectively. Conjunctions connect syntactic unities (members of sentence, sentences, etc.), while connectors relate pragmatic components (speech acts, moves, etc.).
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.