Повышение пенсионного возраста: позитивные эффекты и вероятные риски
In this paper, we explain why it is necessary to reform the pension system in Russia and, in particular, to increase the pension age. Moreover, we emphasize the positive consequences of such a reform, focus on potential risks and analyze measures for their prevention, as well as state counter-arguments to the most common objections. It is shown that due to demographic processes, the growth of informal employment and the reduction of average tenure, the number of pensioners is increasing while the population of donors of the pension system is declining. Under such conditions, the maintenance of the existing level of pensions will require significant additional costs. Raising the general retirement age as one of the measures for optimization of the pension system will help not only to maintain the level of pensions, but also to prevent the expansion of transfer payments from the federal budget and the increase of tax burden on the population and business. The reform will improve the situation on the labor market and stimulate the process of active longevity. It is also shown that the arguments against the increase of the retirement age are not well-founded. Several scenarios of the retirement age increase are considered, and the choice of the most favorable way for the Russian economy is made: up to 63 years for men and 60 years for women at the pace of 3 months per year in the first four years of the reform, then 6 months per year. The most crucial tasks which should be solved in order to maximize the social and economic output of the reform are also considered in the paper.
The monograph is devoted to the problems arising in the analysis of demographic processes, the calculation of net rates and assessment of reserves in the major life insurance contract. The results of studies involving various related parties of the analyzed issues. For example, given a detailed comparative analysis of pre- and disadvantages of organization of the insurance market in Russia and abroad. With used - vaniem various techniques built a ranking of countries in terms of development of the market under study.
The basis of actuarial calculations in the basic life insurance contracts are demo graphic processes: in particular, information about the mortality rate. The foundation for the construction of a net rates and valuation reserves in the life insurance contract is the data of mortality tables, which are based, in turn, is an indicator of how Vero die before reaching next age interval. In this regard, the authors present the theoretical aspects of the construction of the net rates and valuation reserves in life insurance contracts. The paper discusses methods of constructing mortality tables , raised the problem of statistical analysis of demographic processes in actuarial calculations, an overview of the basic formulas used to derive the net rates and valuation reserves in life insurance contracts.
The authors of the classification of the Russian Federation in terms of economic and demographic character. Some representatives of the obtained clusters The results of the study of the dynamics of demographic processes. It analyzes the main trends in life expectancy at age and sex and the regional context.
Of course, the authors have paid special attention to the analysis of the impact of demographic, financial factors on change of the tariff policy of life insurance contracts, as well as the impact on the rate and size of the allowance conditions of the contract. The research data for the city of Moscow as a financial and information center of Russia, which significantly affects the development of the insurance market as a whole (not only in the life insurance sector).
The results of these studies may be interested in a wide range of professionals in the field of economics, actuarial calculations in life insurance analysts.
The principles of pension reform that has started in Russia in 2002 г. were not the same because of the social, economic and demographic changes. Nevertheless for the time being the situation in the pension sphere cant be determined as stable. The author analyses the main factors clarifying the current characteristics of the pension system in this country as well as the decisions made by the federal government. The future rise of the responsibility of the employed for their future incomes after reaching the pension age is considered to be inevitable.
The aging of Russian population leads to inefficiency of Pay-As-You-Go system, where the benefits come solely from government taxation of current workers' wages, and seems to be one of the problems of Russian Pension System. This is the overview of Russian demographic settings compared to other countries from US CIA ranking. Long-run instruments of influencing demography in Russia are stated below.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.