Некоторые риски токенизации и блокчейнизации гражданско-правовых отношений
The paper is focused on the analysis of the problems that may be driven by mass tokenization of the objects of civil law, i.e. creation of a digital representation of such object in the form of a record in blockchain where the value of such object is transferred subsequently by means of disposal of such token, which is a subject of separate rights to it. There are three problems outlined in the paper: 1) a possible displacement of existing legal regimes of objects of civil rights by the legal regime of the token; 2) the problem of definition of the nature of rights to token (in rem vs. in personam) as well as remedies for their violations; and 3) privacy issues associated with the growth of metadata relating to performed transactions, and resulting from mass tokenization and blockchainization of law. Provisions of the Belarus Decree “On the development of digital economy” of 21 December 2017 were taken to Illustrate the problems.
E.P.Gavrilov - doctor of legal sciences, professor of the civil law department of National research university Higher school of economics (Moscow, email@example.com) supposes that the «subject-matter» of the contracts concerning the disposition of exclusive rights are the rights for non-material objects (exclusive rights or rights of use), and the non-material objects as well.
The dg.o conference is the flagship conference of the Digital Government Society (DGS), and has positioned itself to be a top-ranking conference in this interdisciplinary academic field. It brings high quality research contributions and plays a major role in the advancement of knowledge in the field of digital government. The continue growing number of scholars and the growing number of members will continue to reinforce the position of DGS as a research and practice platform where researchers and practitioners can meet, exchange ideas, and build new relationships.
High rates of growth of the ICO market and its excess returns stipulate a significant interest of investors to projects which use initial token allocation (ICO) for attracting investments. This work takes into account the fact that even a potentially profitable project may fail to collect the required amount of money and to start placing tokens on the stock exchange. We are speaking about success of an ICO-campaign for fund raising. In order to estimate the influence of factors and check the suggested research hypotheses, logistic regression was used. The selection included 672 projects. As a dependent variable, the proportion of the amount collected in the ICO process from the required value is selected. Depending on the tested hypothesis the influencing variables took into account the presence of a pre-sale stage and the bounty program and also the price of the token, the upper limit of fund raising, the duration of the ICO-campaign and the number of team members. The work results allow token emitters to substantiate managing the success of the ICO-campaign of the project and the investors to see whether it deserves their attention. Besides, the obtained materials can be useful for specialists in forming the legal framework of token transactions.
Response to Peter Schaar (Chairman of the European Academy For Freedom of Information and Data Protection, former German Data Commissioner) about the incompatibility of the Internet and Big Data with Data protection. It declares that technological development has overtaken the policy-making process and applications according to web 3.0 are likely to be far more effective at piecing together personal data than even traditional search engines.
The series of studies collected in theis book represent different approaches of their authors to the problem of privat life in the past.
To serve target customers better than their competitors, supply chain management (SCM) teams today look into new technologies such as Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain. These new technologies allow managers to develop and provide complex supply chain services and products faster with improved reliabilities. With these technologies, SCM teams can build complex models of a supply chain or systems of supply chains using a data-driven approach. With the growth of aviation domain across the world, there has been increasing demand in aircraft for airlines and other customers. In this domain, SCM teams deal with complex networked supply chains for aircraft’s spare part purchase and delivery for aircraft’s maintenance and repair. Aircraft’s spare parts are shipped to single assembly hubs, located globally. All parts come with certain life expectancy, specific requirements and maintenance attributes. With thousands of spare parts, hundreds of parameters, and number of manufactures distributed globally, SCM team need to deal with very large amount of data. In this paper, we use an industrial scenario of aviation industry SCM to demonstrate the necessity of having decentralized system based on distributed data-driven application technologies such as Blockchain, not only to assist in maintaining inventory of the aircraft’s parts but also to monitor the performance, usage, etc. This will help to achieve a transparent network of supply chain for aircraft’s parts and reduce the risk of availability of aircraft’s parts in black market. These new data-driven technologies when embedded into SCM scenarios will help the SCM managers to analyse the supply, demands, source of availability of spare parts and provide methods to procure them from the right sources.
In the conditions of accelerated globalization and high speed of technological progress, it becomes vitally important for investors, banks and other participants of the financial market to use innovations in their kind of activity to increase profits. Otherwise, they can be defeated before their competitors. In view of the above situation, the author decided to carry out a research paper on the topic "Bitcoin as a breakthrough innovation of the 21st century". The article is devoted to the study of the Crypto-currency as a derivative of the technology from the "Blochane" innovation. The main objective of the study is to define the investment appeal of the crypto currency both in general and in particular - Bitcoin. The subject of the study is Bitcoin, and the object of research is the technology of P2P data exchange. The main method of studying Bitcoin is the historical analysis, on the basis of which the cause-effect relationships affecting the Bitcoin exchange rate to the dollar were searched. Also, a quantum-economic analysis was made showing the state of the subject of research to date. Moreover, it was presented a comparison of the fiat currencies and the first crypto currency. The author also analyzed the dynamics of changes in the level of interest of the population in crypto currency Bitcoin and the dynamics of the change in the rate of Bitcoin to the dollar. Based on the analysis done, the author came to a number of conclusions, the main ones of which are: Bitcoin is a test model of a new concept of electronic money transfer; In the near future it is necessary to expect the emergence of national crypto-currencies; The potential of technology "Blokchayne" can radically change the accounting and tax reporting of legal entities.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/