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## Examples of lattice-polarized K3 surfaces with automorphic discriminant, and Lorentzian Kac–Moody algebras

We prove that there exist exactly eight Siegel modular forms with respect to the congruence subgroups of Hecke type of the paramodular groups of genus two vanishing precisely along the diagonal of the Siegel upper half-plane. This is a solution of a question formulated during the conference "Black holes, Black Rings and Modular Forms" (ENS, Paris, August 2007). These modular forms generalize the classical Igusa form and the forms constructed by Gritsenko and Nikulin in 1998.

This book offers an introduction to the research in several recently discovered and actively developing mathematical and mathematical physics areas. It focuses on: 1) Feynman integrals and modular functions, 2) hyperbolic and Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras, related automorphic forms and applications to quantum gravity, 3) superconformal indices and elliptic hypergeometric integrals, related instanton partition functions, 4) moonshine, its arithmetic aspects, Jacobi forms, elliptic genus, and string theory, and 5) theory and applications of the elliptic Painleve equation, and aspects of Painleve equations in quantum field theories. All the topics covered are related to various partition functions emerging in different supersymmetric and ordinary quantum field theories in curved space-times of different (d=2,3,…,6) dimensions. Presenting multidisciplinary methods (localization, Borcherds products, theory of special functions, Cremona maps, etc) for treating a range of partition functions, the book is intended for graduate students and young postdocs interested in the interaction between quantum field theory and mathematics related to automorphic forms, representation theory, number theory and geometry, and mirror symmetry.

The generating function for Sn-equivariant Euler characteristics of moduli spaces of pointed hyperelliptic curves for any genus g ≥ 2 is calculated. This answer generalizes the known ones for genera 2 and 3 and the answers obtained by J. Bergstro ̈m for any genus and n ≤ 7 points.

Symplectic instanton vector bundles on the projective space $\mathbb{P}^3$ constitute a natural generalization of mathematical instantons of rank-2. We study the moduli space $I_{n;r}$ of rank-$2r$ symplectic instanton vector bundles on $\mathbb{P}^3$ with $r\ge2$ and second Chern class $n\ge r, n\equiv r(\mod 2)$. We introduce the notion of tame symplectic instantons by excluding a kind of pathological monads and show that the locus $I_{n;r}^*$ of tame symplectic instantons is irreducible and has the expected dimension, equal to $4n(r+1)-r(2r+1)$.

The name "K3 surfaces" was coined by A. Weil in 1957 when he formulated a research programme for these surfaces and theirmoduli. Since then, irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds have been introduced as a higher dimensional analogue of K3 surfaces. In this paper we present a review of this theory starting from the definition of K3 surfaces and going as far as the global Torelli theorem for irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds as recently proved by M. Verbitsky. For many years the last open question of Weil's programme was that of the geometric type of the moduli spaces of polarised K3 surfaces. We explain how this problem has been solved. Our method uses algebraic geometry, modular forms and Borcherds automorphic products. We collect and discuss the relevant facts from the theory of modular forms with respect to the orthogonal group O(2,n). We also give a detailed description of quasi pull-back of automorphic Borcherds products. This part contains previously unpublished results. We apply our geometric-automorphic method to study moduli spaces of both polarised K3 surfaces and irreducible symplectic varieties.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.