Photon Absorption Near the Gap Frequency in a Hot Electron Bolometer
The superconducting energy gap is a fundamental characteristic of a superconducting film, which, together with the applied pump power and the biasing setup, defines the instantaneous resistive state of the Hot Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixer at any given bias point on the I-V curve. In this paper we report on a series of experiments, in which we subjected the HEB to radiation over a wide frequency range along with parallel microwave injection. We have observed three distinct regimes of operation of the HEB, depending on whether the radiation is above the gap frequency, far below it or close to it. These regimes are driven by the different patterns of photon absorption. The experiments have allowed us to derive the approximate gap frequency of the device under test as about 585 GHz. Microwave injection was used to probe the HEB impedance. Spontaneous switching between the superconducting (low resistive) state and a quasi-normal (high resistive) state was observed. The switching pattern depends on the particular regime of HEB operation and can assume a random pattern at pump frequencies below the gap to a regular relaxation oscillation running at a few MHz when pumped above the gap.
Interest in research in the terahertz range is driven by a great number of various applications, where terahertz instruments may play a leading role. To name just a few, such applications include study of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the distribution of the dark matter, medicine, navigation, fire alarm, security systems and environmental monitoring. The paper discusses the possibility of using a receiver based on the hot-electron effect in superconducting films as an imaging system. We present the results of the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) measurements performed with a hot-electron bolometer mixer made from a thin superconducting film. The receiver with a noise temperature of ~ 3800 K at a local oscillator frequency of 300 GHz a bandwidth of 500 MHz and an integration time of 1 s has offered an NETD of 0.5 K. We have also developed a technique that enabled us to reduce the contribution of the mixer gain fluctuations to the overall system instability. As of this writing, the above value of the NETD is the lowest value offered for this type of receiver, which indicates the possibility to use such receivers in real-time imaging systems. The technique offered in the paper for achieving the limiting value of the NETD offers an alternative to the phase-locking scheme.
This work presents the results of the development and fabrication of sensitive and ultrafast detectorsbased on thin film superconducting nanostructures: hot-electron bolometers (HEBs) and visible and infrared superconducting singe photon detectors (SSPDs). The main operational principles of the superconducting devices are presentedas well as the technology of fabrication of the detectors and their main types and parameters. The achieved record parameters of the detectors allow application of the fabricated devices to solution of various research problems in the near, middle and far IR ranges.
First implementation of the heterodyne superconducting integrated receiver based on hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer is presented. The flux flow oscillator based on long Josephson junction is implemented on one chip (size 4x4 mm2) together with the HEB-mixer coupled to twin slot antenna. Frequency range of 450-620 GHz has been realized with noise temperature of about 1000 K at 600 GHz for intermediate frequency of HEB-mixer 0-1 GHz. Direct response of the mixer at frequencies up to 2 THz is measured being actually the twin slot antenna characteristics included in quasioptical system integrated with HEB (taking into account the matching circuits for the coupling of the local oscillator).
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.