Technology transfer and commercialisation by universities and PRIs: benchmarking OECD country policy approaches
The article highlights the challenges of benchmarking the science, technology and innovation (STI) policy mix between countries. A benchmarking concept is developed to compare policies across countries, which takes account of country structural features, the way policies are embedded in the national STI policy context and the country’s development stage. We focus on policies aiming at fostering technology transfer and commercialisation of public research in selected OECD and emerging economies, drawing on the recent EC/OECD STI Outlook Policy database. Countries combine instruments across different policy domains, including business innovation, entrepreneurship and industrial policies in accordance with their public research orientation and business absorptive capacities. Policy interventions focus on upstream and/or downstream stages of knowledge transfer as attention is given to adjusting the supply of public research to social and economic needs or to encouraging business demand for public research results. Transfer and commercialisation of public research is increasingly integrated into STI policy governance. Policy sets for knowledge transfer tend to be denser in more advanced STI systems.
Today the increasing number of constant consumers is a strategic aim for any organization which is possible to be achieved only under condition of continuous perfection of organizational activity quality. If the service representation doesn't correspond to the consumers’ expectations they lose their interest to the service organization, if it does correspond or surpass their expectations they probably would readdress to service provider. For this reason the service organization should more precisely reveal consumers requirements and expectations, namely provider should constantly measure its service quality.
In the given work approaches by the Russian and foreign researchers in the field of quality management are studied and analyzed in details, namely:
- approaches to the «service quality» definition;
- the basic components of service quality management process;
- service organization quality model.
The purpose of research work consists of ISQM (Innovation System of Quality Management) model creation taking into account features of TCS providing, which, in turn, is targeted on TCS company purposes achievement in the field of quality by means of:
- setting the control values of TCS quality indicators;
- measuring of the reached results and their comparison with expected results;
- effective management decision making as a result of carrying out the analysis of managerial activity in the field of quality on the basis of the report containing recommendations for the company activity improvement, prepared due to the results of measuring and collecting quality indicators.
At the present level of development the information and knowledge become important engines of global economic growth and key elements of national strate-gy for increasing country’s competitiveness in the international market. The article is aimed to analyze two monitoring systems of innovation capacity (ICT Development Index and Networked Readiness Index) as the indicators of development of knowledge economy and information society.
The article deals with the concept of the development of society as an innovative. The author puts forward the assumption of the formation of discursive anthropocentric economy, new predictive models of innovative communication.
In the modern economic reality the level of competitiveness of entire countries and national economies depends on innovative activity in the industry and technology. The present article analyzes the diffusion of clusters model in international experience and the spread of spin-offs model as an effective solution for clusters’ efficiency increasing. A methodological proposal for evaluating of clusters’ competitiveness is formulated.
Presents over twenty case studies drawn from practical experience ; Demonstrates how success is measured, providing reader with tools for implementation; Organized around five themes with specific comments for case comparisons from experts in the field; Introduces readers to several contexts that can be applied in various situations; Resource for further study of service innovation
Case Studies in Service Innovation provides the reader fresh insight into how innovation occurs in practice, and stimulates learning from one context to another. The volume brings together contributions from researchers and practitioners in a celebration of achievements with the intention of adding to the wider understanding of how service innovation develops. Each case presents a brief description of the context in which the innovation occurred, the opportunity that led to the innovation and an overview of the innovation itself, also addressing how success was measured, what success has been achieved to date and providing links to further information.
The book is organized around five major themes, each reflecting recognized sources of service innovation: Business Model Innovation: new ways of creating, delivering or capturing economic, social, environmental and other types of value; The Organization in its Environment: an organization engaging beyond its own boundaries, with public private partnerships, sourcing knowledge externally, innovation networks, and open or distributed innovation; Innovation Management within an Organization: an organization actively encouraging innovation within its own boundaries using project teams, internal governance of innovation, and methods or tools that stimulate innovation; Process Innovation: changes in service design and delivery processes, such as consumer led innovation or consumers as part of the innovation process, service operations management, and educational processes; Technology Innovation: the use of technology, including ICT enabled innovation, ICTs that are themselves innovative and support the delivery of new services, new ICT services, new ways of delivering services associated with ICT products, and technology other than ICT.
The final part of the book is given to four extended cases allowing for a more in-depth treatment of innovation within a complex service system. The extended cases also illustrate two important and growing trends, firstly the need for, and benefits of, a more customer centric approach to service innovation and secondly the need for better understanding of public services and the role of public-private partnerships in identifying and achieving innovation
A successful realization of the Russia and Belarus Union State’s project SKIF made a strong impulse to supercomputing in both countries. The scale of positive externalities to a large degree was made of the selected open model of intellectual property management. This made supercomputing available not only to the large corporations and state R&D bodies, but to the small and medium business as well. This resulted in the rise of innovation implementation and their contribution to modernization of Russian and Belarusian economies on the whole.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.