A Retired Brigadier Caught between Feelings and Social Hierarchy. The Concept of Friendship in a Late 18th-Century Epistolary Exchange
The paper examines social differences in the understanding of the concept of ‘friendship’ in late 18th – early 19th century Russia deployed in the unpublished correspondence of Count Aleksandr Vorontsov, a member of the social elite of the Catherinean Age, and Aleksei D´iakonov, an obscure official who was Vorontsov’s client. While letter exchange was a kind of freemasonic practice, and both correspondents were members of a Masonic lodge, Vorontsov used sentimentalist language and addressed his client as “friend,” trying to erase or at least obscure the social boundaries between them. Social equality, even as a rhetorical formula, was progressively becoming possible between an aristocrat and an educated commoner such as D´iakonov, and it unfolded in rhetorical terms. D´iakonov adopted vis-à-vis his patron an attitude that reflected their respective positions on the hierarchical ladder, thus conforming to the traditional behavior of a Russian official and avoiding Western (Masonic, or sentimentalist) rhetoric of equality.
Alexander F Filippov. Mobility and Solidarity. Part 2. This article continues «Mobility and solidarity. Part 1» (Sociological review. Vol. 10. № 3). Solidarity is considered first of all from the point of view of co-intended meaning, as an additional motive accompanying the main motivation of participants of interaction and, at exhaustion of the initial motive, replacing this motive. An example of such a motive in elementary interactions is fidelity. Fidelity, according to Georg Simmel, enables participants to make as kind of logical induction from the facts of the current behavior to the expected behavior of partners. Other type of communication concerning solidarity, is civil friendship, as described, in particular, by Aristotle. However any friendship presupposes too narrow and too specific circles of contacts, it can be only a prototype of modern solidarity. Religious ethics of fraternal affection and ethics of military brotherhood compete to friendship and often force it out. The more they are free from «world orders» (M. Weber), the more they come nearer to type of pure solidarity. The exchange of gifts can be considered as another type solidarity, however in modern societies it has only limited potential of universality. The most important phenomenon of modern mobile society is pure togetherness (Z. Bauman). Here solidarity is present as an imputed motive, one of the accepted vocabulary of motives, often invoked post hoc to explain why those who aren’t forced to it by power, money, or value commitments keep together
In Russia women in power is a rare phenomenon. However, the 17th century winessed a long rule of women. This article deals with such a phenomenon.
This is a volume of correspondence between Vasily Maklakov (1869-1957) and Mark Aldanov (1886-1957) that took place in the years 1929 to 1957. Maklakov was a defense lawyer, a member of the Central Committee of the Constitutional Democratic Party, a member of the 2nd-4th State Dumas, an ambassador of the Provisional Government to France (1917-1924). After the collapse of the Provisional Government he de facto represented various anti-Bolshevik governments, and later the interests of Russian exiles in France and other countries. Mark Aldanov was a writer and social commentator, one of the most popular writers of the “Russia abroad” and one of the leading Russian historical novelists of the XX century. The correspondence is a unique source on one of the least studied periods of Russian emigration – the post-war period. It contains information on the émigré discussions of attitudes towards the Soviet power, towards the Vlasov movement, and the problem of collaborationism in general, on the activity of various émigré political organizations, and about various prominent figures of the Russian emigration – Ivan Bunin, Alexandre Kerensky, Sergey Melgunov, Boris Nicolaevsky, and many others. The value of this correspondence extends beyond the fact that it is a wonderful source on the history of Russian political thought of the XX century, on the history and culture of the Russian emigration, and history of Russian literature. This is also a shining example of epistolary genre.
Material objects must always be seen in context with the humans who created and used them. It is only possible to recognize and evaluate material culture in connection with human thought and behavior. The material world depends on the immaterial one, and vice versa. Neither sphere can exist without the other. In historical research, however, such contexts have not been considered regularly. In particular, the inter-connections between emotions and material culture have not been taken sufficiently into account in research. This was the reason for the “Institut für Realienkunde des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit” to organize a round-table-discussion on "Emotions and Material Culture“ and to publish its proceedings. The volume contains eleven contributions by specialists from eight countries. They show various possibilities to contextualize the material world and emotional behavior. They may be seen as a first step towards a “material emotionology” of the past. The complex results are intended to serve as a further impetus towards the systematic and comparative research into “emotional communities” and their material life in the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
A traditional lifestyle with native Northern peoples is based on a relative social and age parity. Subject to consideration being reasons and specificity of social stratification with Russian Northern peoples. The article shows differences between processes in cities and settlements, as well as with people occupied in traditional and «modern» activities. In schools children come across harsh stratification contrasting their traditional lifestyle. Stratification of indigenous communities is regarded as a stressor due to modernization changes.