Studies in the Verbal Morphology of Soqotri II: Weak and Geminated Roots in the Basic Stem
The present article continues the investigation of the Soqotri verbal system undertaken by the Russian-Soqotri fieldwork team. The article focuses on the so-called “weak” and “geminated” roots in the basic stem. The investigation is based on the analysis of full paradigms (perfect, imperfect and jussive) of more than 170 “weak” and “geminated” Soqotri verbs.
This article deals with the order of verbal suffixes in Adyghe, a polysynthetic language of the Caucasus. Traditionally the structure of the Adyghe word form and the order of its affixes were described in terms of template morphology. However, we present new data demanding another, substantially different approach. We demonstrate that for the most part suffix ordering within the Adyghe verb follows strictly compositional rules. This feature is a manifestation of the polysynthetic nature of the language.
The article deals with two hitherto unexplored—to some extent, even unknown—verbal categories of the Modern South Arabian language Soqotri (Island of Soqotra, Gulf of Aden, Yemen), namely the “old imperative” and the n-conditional. Research material is taken from both the early publications of the Austrian expedition and the authors’ own field materials recently collected on the island. It is demonstrated that both categories have survived up to now and can be found—albeit not very frequently—in the living speech of the islanders. In the concluding segments of the article, a few hypotheses about the functional load of the categories under scrutiny are advanced and discussed.
The Caucasus is the place with the greatest linguistic variation in Europe. The present volume explores this variation within the tense, aspect, mood, and evidentiality systems in the languages of the North-East Caucasian (or Nakh-Daghestanian) family. The papers of the volume cover the most challenging and typologically interesting features such as aspect and the complicated interaction of aspectual oppositions expressed by stem allomorphy and inflectional paradigms, grammaticalized evidentiality and mirativity, and the semantics of rare verbal categories such as the deliberative (‘May I go?’), the noncurative (‘Let him go, I don’t care’), different types of habituals (gnomic, qualitative, non-generic), and perfective tenses (aorist, perfect, resultative). The book offers an overview of these features in order to gain a broader picture of the verbal semantics covering the whole North-East Caucasian family. At the same time it provides in-depth studies of the most fascinating phenomena.
This volume is a contribution to the typology of the category of aspect. Its aim is bringing forward new empirical data from languages not yet (widely) covered in typological aspectual investigations and to start or broaden their typological discussion. The articles in the paper are grouped in two sections. The first section is an account of aspectual systems of languages in four linguistic areas, including Europe, the Caucasus, Northeast Eurasia, and Africa and the Americas. The second section focusses on specific aspectual categories in individual languages or cross-linguistically.
In the article semantic ordering of valency-changing operations in Adyghe is analyzed. The analysis is focused mainly on the ordering of the causativization with respect to other valency change types. It turns out that causativization, according to morphosyntactic tests, almost always follows any other valency-changing operation.
On the other hand, semantic scope turns out to be distinct from the ordering of derivations. Even when causativization precedes another valency-changing operation, it is not the case that the causative marker is included into the scope of another marker.
13 poetic fragments in the Modern South Arabian language Soqotri (the island of Soqotra, Gulf of Aden, Yemen), recorded phonographically at the beginning of the 20th century by the Austrian orientalist David Heinrich Mueller, are presented in phonological transcription and English translation. Each fragment is extensively annotated with the help of native speakers of modern Soqotri. A detailed glossary (Soqotri-English-Arabic) comprising all words from texts and annotations rounds up the book.
The paper contains some basic information on the morphology of the Ulap variety of Besleney Kabardian.
The chapter provides the general description of word formation in Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian). Adyghe is a highly polysynthetic language with a very weak distinction between nouns and verbs. Compounding and affixation (including both suffixation and prefixation) are widespread. Morphological means often allow recursion and the order of morphemes depends on the semantics to a large extent. Inflection and derivation are not distinguished clearly. While deverbal nominal derivation is highly developed, most “verbal” formation actually applies to all kinds of bases. Minor parts-of-speech like adjectives and adverbs show dedicated markers. Conversion proper is occasional.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.