Глагольные деривации чукотского языка сквозь призму глагольной множественности
This paper concerns the converb forms expressing Simultaneity in Izhma Komi, Northern Khanty and Moksha belonging to the Finno-Ugric group of languages. The existing typological classifications of temporal relations and simultaneity relations in particular either are not detailed enough or lack rigorous criteria and thus appear not to be sufficient for understanding the usage and the distribution of temporal converbs. The study attempts to build a more detailed typological classification of Simultaneity relations which accounts for the data of the languages under consideration. The analyzed parameters of variation include the viewpoint aspect of the events, clause modification type, givenness of the conveyed information and the pragmatic type of the predicate. Special attention is paid to the discourse-pragmatic properties of the forms which bring new insights into the discussion.
Semelfactive, delimitative, attenuative, and similar meanings are frequently combined in one marker across world languages forming a single semantic area. The article addresses the verbal attenuative in-al- / -alal / -ə̑ ldal in Hill Mari, looking into its morphonological distribution and polysemy. The marker allows for multiple (perfective) interpretations, including: delimitative (‘do P for a while’); transition to a temporary state (‘enter state S for a while and return to the initial state’); transition to a weaker state (‘enter state S, which is expressed weaker than the norm’); partial accomplishment (‘accomplish X in part only’). Imperfective interpretations, i.e. a weaker state or a weaker atelic process, are not available for the attenuative except for a coercion interpretation emerging with a zero iterative affix (‘read a book sporadically’ = ‘read for a while in a series of separate attempts’). The actual interpretation is shown to depend on the Aktionsart properties of the stem. Interpretations that include a change of state (other than the delimitative) are only possible where the stem verb has a resulting state in its aspectual structure. Overall, attenuatives describe situations which have a shorter duration than a standard S, and b) do not lead to any resulting state. The latter is true either because there is no result state in the first place, or because the result state is either cancelled or only partially reached.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.