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Regular version of the site

Article

Belief in a Zero-Sum Game and Subjective Well-Being Across 35 Countries

Różycka-Tran J., Piotrowski J., Żemojtel-Piotrowska M., Jurek P., Osin E. N., Adams B. G., Ardi R., Bălțătescu S., Bhomi A. L., Bogomaz S. A., Cieciuch J., Clinton A., DeClunie G. T., Czarna A. Z., Esteves C. S., Gouveia V., Halik M. H., Kachatryan N., Kamble S. V., Kawula A., Klicperova-Baker M., Kospakov A., Letovancova E., Lun V. M., Cerrato S. M., Muehlbacher S., Nikolic M., Pankratova A., Park J., Paspalanova E., Pék G., Pérez de León P., Šolcová I. P., Shahbaz W., Thi Khanh Ha T., Tiliouine H., Van Hiel A., Vauclair C., Wills-Herrera E., Włodarczyk A., Yahiiaiev I. I., Maltby J.

This article presents a short research report on the relationship between perceived antagonism in social relations
measured using the Belief in a Zero-Sum Game (BZSG) scale, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect.
Given that individuals who believe that life is like a zero-sum game are likely to perceive their daily interactions
with others as unfair, we expected that individuals with high BZSG experience more negative affect and fewer
positive one, resulting in a lower satisfaction with life. In addition, we examined whether country-level BZSG may
play a moderating role in these associations. Data were collected from student samples (N = 7146) in 35 countries.
Multilevel modelling revealed that perceived social antagonism in social relations is negatively associated with
satisfaction with life and that this relationship is mediated by both positive and negative affect at the individual
level. The relation of individual BZSG and negative affect on satisfaction with life were weaker in societies with
higher country-level BZSG, suggesting that the effects of BZSG may be less detrimental in these countries. These
findings extend previous knowledge about predictors of life satisfaction and suggest that social beliefs might also be
an important factor that influences subjective well-being. The contribution of the study is that the separate treatment
of life satisfaction and positive and negative affect may be helpful in many research situations, particularly from a
cross-cultural perspective.