Метрология одиночных фотонов для квантовых информационных технологий
A new approach to the metrology of optical measurements - the quantum metrology of photons is proposed. The specific character of measurements of the quantum states of polarization of single photons and polarization-entangled photons is considered. The basic problems standing before the contemporary metrology of photons were formulated.
The optical properties of graphene-based structures are discissed. The universal optical absorption in graphene is reviewed. The photonic band structure and transmission of graphene-based photonic crystals are considered. The spectra of plasmon and magnetoplasmon excitations in graphene layers and grapehene nanoribbons (GNR) are analyzed. The localization of the electromagnetic waves in the photonic crystals with defects, which play a role of waveguide, is studied. Properties of plasmons and magnetoplasmons in graphene layers and GNR are reviewed. The surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation with the net amplification of surface plasmons in the doped GNR is described. The minimal population inversion per unit area needed for the net amplification of plasmons in a doped GNR is reported. The various applications of graphene for photonics and optoelectronics are reviewed. The tunability of photonic and plasmonic properties of various graphene structures by doping achieved by applying the gate voltage is discussed.
Technology mining (TM) helps to acquire intelligence about the evolution of research and development (R&D), technologies, products, and markets for various STI areas and what is likely to emerge in the future by identifying trends. The present chapter introduces a methodology for the identification of trends through a combination of “thematic clustering” based on the co-occurrence of terms, and “dynamic term clustering” based on the correlation of their dynamics across time. In this way, it is possible to identify and distinguish four patterns in the evolution of terms, which eventually lead to (i) weak signals of future trends, as well as (ii) emerging, (iii) maturing, and (iv) declining trends. Key trends identified are then further analyzed by looking at the semantic connections between terms identified through TM. This helps to understand the context and further features of the trend. The proposed approach is demonstrated in the field photonics as an emerging technology with a number of potential application areas.
In superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPD), the efficiency of local suppression of superconductivity and hotspot formation is controlled by diffusivity and electron-phonon interaction time. Here, we selected a material, 3.6-nm-thick MoNx film, which features diffusivity close to those of NbN traditionally used for SSPD fabrication, but with electron-phonon interaction time an order of magnitude larger. In MoN∞ detectors, we study the dependence of detection efficiency on bias current, photon energy, and strip width, and compare it with NbN SSPD. We observe nonlinear current-energy dependence in MoNx SSPD and more pronounced plateaus in dependences of detection efficiency on bias current, which we attribute to longer electron-phonon interaction time.
For a system of two spatially separated qubits (two-level atoms) coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide we have described the time evolution of singly or doubly excited states of the atomic subsystem. When the interatomic distance l takes special (“resonant” or “antiresonant”) values, the singly excited system of resonant atoms can form metastable (dark) states. If l slightly deviates from one of the special values or the atomic frequencies do not coincide, the dark states slowly decay and we have calculated the decay rate. Also, we have found that the doubly excited state of two resonant atoms located at the special positions does not completely decay but, with a finite probability, can evolve (with the emission of a single photon) to one of the metastable singly excited states. Metastable states of pairs of qubits may find applications (e.g., as memory elements) in information processing or as detectors sensitive to external perturbations.
The formation and properties of locally tensile strained Ge microstructures (“microbridges”) based on Ge layers grown on silicon substrates are investigated. The elastic-strain distribution in suspended Ge microbridges is analyzed theoretically. This analysis indicates that, in order to attain the maximum tensile strain within a microbridge, the accumulation of strain in all corners of the fabricated microstructure has to be minimized. Measurements of the local strain using Raman scattering show significant enhancement of the tensile strain from 0.2–0.25% in the initial Ge film to ~2.4% in the Ge microbridges. A considerable increase in the luminescence intensity and significant modification of its spectrum in the regions of maximum tensile strain in Ge microbridges and in their vicinity as compared to weakly strained regions of the initial Ge film is demonstrated by microphotoluminescence spectroscopy.
PROCEEDINGS OF SPIE Volume 10912 Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII
Bernd Witzigmann Marek Osiński Yasuhiko Arakawa Editors
5–7 February 2019 San Francisco, California, United States
This book presents research dedicated to solving scientific and technological problems in many areas of electronics, photonics and renewable energy. Progress in information and renewable energy technologies requires miniaturization of devices and reduction of costs, energy and material consumption. The latest generation of electronic devices is now approaching nanometer scale dimensions; new materials are being introduced into electronics manufacturing at an unprecedented rate; and alternative technologies to mainstream CMOS are evolving. The low cost of natural energy sources have created economic barriers to the development of alternative and more efficient solar energy systems, fuel cells and batteries.
Nanotechnology is widely accepted as a source of potential solutions in securing future progress for information and energy technologies. Nanoscale Materials and Devices for Electronics, Photonics and Solar Energy features chapters that cover the following areas: atomic scale materials design, bio- and molecular electronics, high frequency electronics, fabrication of nanodevices, magnetic materials and spintronics, materials and processes for integrated and subwave optoelectronics, nanoCMOS, new materials for FETs and other devices, nanoelectronics system architecture, nano optics and lasers, non-silicon materials and devices, chemical and biosensors,quantum effects in devices, nano science and technology applications in the development of novel solar energy devices, and fuel cells and batteries.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.