“Sham” Litigation: When Can It Arise and How Can It Be Reduced?
In both the US and the EU, the antitrust category of “sham litigation” (in the US) or “vexatious litigation” (in the EU) enables a plaintiff, or a defendant in case this action forms part of a counterclaim, to argue that the introduction of litigation may constitute, under certain conditions, an infringement of competition law. This naturally leads to the question of what is a workable standard for establishing the existence of sham litigation, and how it is possible to distinguish between the legitimate use of the regulatory/litigation process and strategic attempts to use the process in order to restrict competition. Legal and economic literature, as well as the courts, have struggled to define operational tests enabling them to determine the boundaries of the “sham”/“vexatious” litigation antitrust category. The paper examines the intellectual underpinnings of this form of abusive/anticompetitive conduct and puts forward a “mechanism design approach” with the aim to reduce the occurrence of sham litigation.
Present article considers the issue of conflict and material regulation of international passenger carriage. In this article, a detailed analysis of national and international regulation on the transport of passengers by different types of transport, in particular deals with the classification of types of attachment and conflict of laws according to the international passenger carriage.
Competition and the State analyzes the role of the state across a number of dimensions as it relates to competition law and policy across a number of dimensions. This book re-conceptualizes the interaction between competition law and government activities in light of the profound transformation of the conception of state action in recent years by looking to the challenges of privatization, new public management, and public-private partnerships. It then asks whether there is a substantive legal framework that might be put in place to address competition issues as they relate to the role of the state. Various chapters also provide case studies of national experiences. The volume also examines one of the most highly controversial policy issues within the competition and regulatory sphere—the role of competition law and policy in the financial sector.
The article is devoted to the questions of functioning markets related to base market. The problems of identification product and geographic market boundaries and monopolization of base market influence on such markets are analyzed. As an example in the research the telecom market is considered.
One of the modern lines of the Russian competition law is strengthening of public sanctions for its infringement. However practical application of these sanctions is possible only at full conformity of circumstances of concrete case to all conditions of application of measures of responsibility. These conditions are listed in the administrative legislation, in the criminal code and in the Law on protection of a competition of 2006. Russian and foreign legal practice shows that the most difficult for the determination are boundaries of the product market where there was an anticompetitive offence. What are the practice of application and prospect of updating of rules of a proof of such boundaries? The present article also is devoted the analysis of this point in question. The author shows features and lacks of use of economic arguments at interpretation of legal concept «the product market».
Based on the analysis of actual problems of legal statistics suggestions for improving its use in the study of crime and measures of the struggles she and demonstrates ways to increase trust legal statistics and teaching effectiveness as discipline in law schools.
Damages Claims for the Infringement of Competition Law provides a discussion of the emerging field of competition law damages and explores the important questions it raises about the use of the traditional tort law categories in an area of law that is heavily infused with economic analysis. The book combines a corrective justice perspective with an empirical and theoretical analysis of the practice of competition law damages in various jurisdictions in Europe. Rather than adopting the traditional economic analysis of law approach, the authors respect the autonomy of the fields of law and economics, while attempting to identify the areas of conflict that may emerge when economic concepts and categories are integrated in the legal system.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/