Потребности электроэнергетики России в газовых турбинах: текущее состояние и перспективы
The use of gas-turbine plants (GTPs) in the power industry of Russia is analyzed. Attention is paid to microturbines and low-, medium-, high-, and superhigh-power GTPs. The efficiency of the gas-turbine plants of domestic and foreign manufacture is compared. The actual values of the installed capacity utilization factor and the corresponding efficiency values are calculated for most GTPs operating in the country. The long-term demand of the country’s electric power industry for GTPs for the period until 2040 is determined. The estimates have been obtained for three basic applications of the gas turbines, viz., for replacement of the GTPs that have exhausted their lifetime, replacement of outdated gas-turbine plants at gas-and-oilburning power plants, and construction of new thermal power plants to cover the anticipated growing demand for electric power. According to the findings of the research, the main item in the structure of the demand for GTPs will be their use to replace the decommissioned steam-turbine plants, predominantly those integrated into combined-cycle plants. The priority of the reconstruction of the thermal power plants in operation over the construction of new ones is determined by the large excess of accumulated installed capacities in the country and considerable savings on capital costs using production sites with completed infrastructure. It is established that medium- and high-power GTPs will be the most in-demand plants in the electric power industry. The demand for low-power GTPs will increase at high rates. The demand for microturbines is expected to be rather great. The demand for superhigh-power plants will become quantitatively significant after 2025 and grow rapidly afterwards. The necessity of accelerated development of competitive domestic GTPs with a wide range of capacities and mastering of their series manufacture as well as production of licensed gas turbines at a high production localization level on the territory of the country is shown. Considerable home demand for the power-generating GTPs and vast external markets will make the development of efficient domestic GTPs economically viable.