Насколько высок технически реализуемый потенциал ВИЭ в России? Наиболее перспективные регионы для развития ветровой, солнечной и малой гидро- генерации, биоэнергетики
Recognizing the importance of energy for sustainable development, the United Nations General Assembly has designated the year 2012 as the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All. Sustainable development concept. Humans living on the Earth shall recognize that nature is their habitat and their only source of existence. Attitudes to the economy and nature are moral issues relevant to the destiny of not only current but future generations. To deal with these issues it is necessary to enhance the spirit of people who choose paths, realize strategies, and participate in economic development and in life itself. In the history of economic development one can distinguish four main periods regarding human attitudes to nature.
We reviewed the output of research and innovation cooperation between Russia and the US, including publications and patents, in the four prospective areas of energy efficiency and renewable energy during 2007-2011. Joint US-Russia research groups appear to focus primarily on hydrogen energy (fuel cells), followed by solar photovoltaics. The upcoming areas of smart grid and biofuels were left out entirely both from research and innovation collaboration. Russian patents in green energy technologies registered in the US are very low in comparison to those from Japan, Korea, and China.
The comparative analysis presents the first comparative study of the government procurement of French and Russian petroleum products with an in-depth review of foreign legal sources and national policy instruments. Based on the findings, this research led to the conclusion that public procurement of hydrocarbons is an extremely sensitive matter in the geopolitical, political and institutional sense. Despite some similarities in the general concept of French and Russian legislation in public procurement, the analysis revealed a substantial difference in the implementation of public procurement policies. Russia is characterized by a predominance of electronic auctions where the evaluation is based solely on the price whereas France uses a wide variety of different criteria to evaluate procurement offers.
This ambitious report prepared under the aegis of Economic Policy Forum focuses on the future of global energy systems, supply-side economics and the pressures for energy diversification, energy efficiency and energy access at the country and sub-national level. The expansive scope of the study is based on the assumption that the reader is familiar with contemporary conversations on energy; it seeks to inform the reader of analyses and perspectives from Economic Policy Forum member countries by synthesising the deliberations in the meetings thus far and building upon the substantive research work conducted through the platform. The focus of research in the Economic Policy Forum follows from the relevance of emerging countries such as BRICS in energy policy debates. One of the paradoxes in such debates, as is pointed out in the report, is the fact that the countries which face the largest energy challenges, or the most important energy policy-related questions, are also countries where policymaking variables are in constant flux. Conversely, in the case of developed countries, a number of fundamental assumptions are well known, which include expectations about consumer demand and industrial consumption extrapolated on the basis of demographic as well as socio-economic trends.
Purpose – The purpose of the study is to show the technical potentials of a variety of renewable energy sources in Russia, as well as benefits from their deployment including hydrocarbon savings, emission reduction and lower energy cost. Design/methodology/approach – In the paper, Russia is compared with other countries in terms of actual installed capacity and its dynamics, actual and projected share of renewables in the energy mix. The authors offer calculations of the technical potentials (fuel, heat energy, electrical energy, resource saving and environmental) of renewables (solar PV, wind, biomass, geothermal, low-grade heat, small hydro), identify social and economic preconditions and key effects of their deployment. Findings – The paper features calculations on the renewable energy technology potential, based on the data by Andreenko et al. (2015), authors’ calculations and statistical data. This study proves that the cumulative technical potential of the renewables in Russia amounts to 133,935 million units of oil equivalent. This study also offers assessments of oil fuel, black coal and natural gas savings that may be achieved by replacing fossil fuels with renewables; assessments of avoided air pollution calculated as CO- and CO2-equivalents. Originality/value – The paper fills in the gap of comprehensive assessments of renewable energy potentials in Russia and a variety of effects that their deployment may entail, based on a single integral methodology. The authors offer a new evaluation of existing and future renewable energy potentials, overcoming the methodological and data constraints faced by previous similar studies. The up-to-date, comprehensive and accurate data will help make the right investment and policy choices.
Quick economic development on India dictates the necessity of its energy base improvement. One could hardly overestimate the importance of so called seven sisters or seven states of North-East India. One of these states is Nagaland (16 579 км2, population -1, 980, 602), the first tribal state of India. There are deposits of gold, uranium, chromium, jade, natural gas and oil. This is the first state in the region having created a special Agency for renewable energy. The article is dedicated to the problems of energy development in the state.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.