Модернизация педагогического образования на основе идей культурно-исторической психологии Л.С. Выготского
The article focuses on the reflection of experience of modernizing pedagogical education on the basis of practical realization of L. S. Vygotsky’s ideas of cultural and historical psychology. It is shown how the basic ideas of L. S. Vygotsky (such ideas as the development as mastering of culture, age, a ratio of education and development in the zone of proximal development, about change of the social situation of development and crises of growing, about roundabout ways of development, about causal life history, about the highest mental functions, about everyday and conceptual thinking, etc.) can become a methodological basis for designing the process of teacher training for variable practice of the developing education. «From action to a thought» and social constructivism as a way of activity in a situation of uncertainty and variability became the fundamental principles of modernization of the pedagogical education.
One of the possible reasons of a shortage of data in literature on age change of neurodynamic parameters of women within reproductive stage ontogenesis is, against the background research of a leading age factor, ignoring influence of the OMC factor stage.
Paralinguistic phenomena are non-verbal elements in conversation. Paralinguistic studies are usually based on audio or video recordings of spoken communication. In this article, we will show what kind of audible paralinguistic information may be obtained from the ORD speech corpus of everyday Russian discourse containing long-term audio recordings of conversations made in natural circumstances. This linguistic resource provides rich authentic data for studying the diversity of audible paralinguistic phenomena. The frequency of paralinguistic phenomena in everyday conversations has been calculated on the base of the annotated subcorpus of 187,600 tokens. The most frequent paralinguistic phenomena turned out to be: laughter, inhalation noise, cough, e-like and m-like vocalizations, tongue clicking, and the variety of unclassified nonverbal sounds (calls, exclamations, imitations by voice, etc.). The paper reports on distribution of paralinguistic elements, non-verbal interjections and hesitations in speech of different gender and age groups.
A general algorithm for the decomposition of differences between two values of an aggregate demographic measure of age and other dimensions is realized as Excel/VBA. It assumes that the aggregate measure is computed from similar matrices of discrete demographic data for two populations under comparison. The algorithm estimates the effects of replacement for each elementary cell of one matrix by the respective cell of another matrix. The replacement runs from young to old ages.
Warm dense matter conductivity and reflectivity are investigated by means of density functional theory. Both one- and two-temperature cases are considered. One-temperature mode is related to equilibrium state where temperature of electrons and ions are equal. As an example of one-temperature system xenon plasma is studied. The reflectivity of shock-compressed dense xenon plasma is calculated and compared with experimental data. Two-temperature mode is associated with different temperature of electrons and ions. The thermal conductivity of aluminum and gold in such mode is examined. The comparison of obtained results with theoretical model based on Boltzmann equation is conducted.
The article describes theoretical junctions revealed by different definitions and usages of the concept “political myth”. It argues that the main difficulty results from the fact that “myth” is a “universal” social phenomenon that is rather “particular” in its manifestation: it is fundamental for any society, but its “work” depends on perception of specific groups in concrete contexts. The article considers theoretical discussions about a narrative nature of contemporary myths, their exclusively verbal or non-verbal form, about arrangement of mythical comprehension of reality and mechanisms of mythologization, about connections between myths and ideologies. However most scholars agree that about capability to be shared and perceived as “a natural order of things” should be considered a key characteristic of any myth. This category is fundamental for analysis of symbolic politics. However its heuristic potential depends on a particular research focus. In the frame of narrower approach that considers symbolic politics as a “constructivist” activity of political elites aimed at manipulation of mass consciousness “the myth” comes as a category of political practice; it points to “artificial”, simulating character of the constructed signs. While a wider approach viewing symbolic politics as a social production of competing ways of interpretation of reality and struggle for their domination opens a perspective for considering myth as communicative process that involves both mythmakers and their auditory. It makes focus on a study of both political and semantic conditions that make particular myth a “lens” that determines perception of reality. So, myth turns to be both category of practice in symbolic politics and instrument of its analysis which makes the work with this term rather complicated.
It is shown in the paper that ecology can be considered not only its strict sense as co-existence and co-evolution of man and nature, but also as ecology of human action in the social world.
The problematic of self-organising and development of a person in formation is analyzed in the article from the point of systematic and methodological and reflective-psychological positions. The role of reflexion in self-organisation of students is studied, various levels of a self-reflexion are differentiated, and their interaction as the backbone factor of self-organising of consciousness of a person in problematic conflict situation is characterized. Diagnostic and developing reflective technologies of activization and self-organisation of students' personalities in the course of vocational training by means of reflective dialogue and reflective polilogue.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.