Is free pre-primary education associated with increased primary school completion? A global study
Global enrollment in primary education has increased significantly particularly since it became a target of the UN’s “Education for All” initiative and one of the Millennium Development Goals. However, there remain substantial inequalities in who completes primary school. Evidence from studies of individual programs in a range of countries suggests that attendance in pre-primary education can improve achievement in primary school and therefore, we hypothesize, potentially raise primary completion rates. Using a database of quantitative, globally comparable measures of national provision of free pre-primary education we created and data from UNESCO’s Institute for Education Statistics, we conducted multivariate quantile regression analyses and find that provision of free and/or compulsory pre-primary education is associated with nearly 10% higher primary school graduation rates for countries at the median and 12% higher rates for countries at the 25% percentile of the primary school graduation rate distribution which are primarily low- and lower-middle-income countries.
The problem of identification and adequate exploitation of institutional prerequisites when working out educational strategies is the subject. The report suggests testing new idea where the representation of such concepts as institutional prerequisites, institutional stoppers, as well as the typology of institutional prerequisites aimed at crafting and implementing strategy for education system development are being introduced. The authors’ expert judgments based on the conclusions of the analysis eighteen local educational systems of St. Petersburg development programs 2011–2016 are the reason for the chosen topic relevance.
A teacher’s capacity to act and to shape critical responses to educational reforms and practices is a quality developed through knowledge and experience. Teacher Agency and Policy Response in English Language Teaching examines the agency of the teacher in negotiating educational reforms and policy changes at the local and national levels. In this volume, contributors share their personal narratives, research and scholarly work that highlight how English teachers can transform their own processes and practices to ensure the best educational experiences for their students in the context of policy implementation.
Using a natural experiment situation, this chapter describes the process of curriculum reform in Russian-medium schools in Latvia and Estonia. The research question focuses on whether those curriculum reforms were successful from the perspective of schools’ interiorisation of new curriculum and PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) performance improvement. Using the three-layered curriculum approach (intended, implemented and attained curriculum), this chapter analyses how the intentions of the laws and other reform-related documents were implemented in everyday school practice and are reflected in attained educational results. To address this issue, a series of in-depth interviews in Russian-medium schools, in conjunction with the PISA 2003 2012 trends analysis, were conducted. The results showed that intended and attained curricula have grown closer in both countries. Schools actively implement proposed reforms in teaching, and PISA performance has been constantly improving, showing that the attained curriculum is approaching what was intended, though this process is different in the two countries.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.