Предметно-ориентированный язык описания трансформаций визуальных моделей
Does the relationship between economic well-being of citizens and support for the welfare state institutions vary across the European Union member countries? To test a hypothesis about the differentiated effect of economic well-being we use multilevel regression modeling. Peculiarities of social cleavages and welfare models in the EU countries explain differences both in type and in degree of the relationship.
The paper deals with multilevel regression modelling (MLM) as a method preferred to the ordinary least-squares regression in the analysis of comparative data with hierarchical data structure. We present substantive reasons (contextual sources of heterogeneity, causal heterogeneity, and generalisability of results) and statistical reasons (obtaining more precise and reliable estimates) for multilevel modelling. We also provide an overview of MLM implementation in several statistical packages. Using the cross-national World Values Survey (WVS) data, we outline a step-by-step procedure for building and fitting a two-level linear regression model of generalized trust on educational attainment levels (the “null” model, the fixed-intercept model, the random-intercept model, the random-intercept random-slope model, the model with a country-level predictor, and the cross-level interaction model). Then we describe and compare existing goodness-of-fit measures for MLM (AIC, BIC, maximum likelihood functions, and pseudo-R2). We also demonstrate robustness check techniques for multilevel models (visualization, Cook’s distance, and DFBETAs). In the final section, we overview alternative approaches to multilevel modelling when dealing with hierarchical data (cluster robust standard errors, generalized estimating equations, country fixed effects, country means, and aggregation) as currently practiced in comparative cross-national social science research. The replicable R code is attached.
Tools of the DSM-platform MetaLanguage for creation of domain specific languages and for multilevel modeling are described. The transformations definition facility provides lower labor consumption for languages development and for model transformations.
Crisis is a burning issue; this is not a phenomenon, which can be conquered forever. Current approach to crisis is an optimized collaboration, which allows for manageable, measurable and predictable software development. Crisis is a new reality to live and work with. The current software development crisis dates back to the 1960s. The root cause of crisis is misbalance between resources and options. Understanding the nature of crisis helps to understand the reasons for the future crises.
This book is a navigator in lifecycle models, methodologies, principles and practices for predictable and efficient software development in crisis, i.e. under rapid requirement changes, resource deficit and other uncertainties. Therefore, the starting chapters suggest the major approaches to software development and their applicability in crisis. Further narration is case-based; it involves large-scale software implementations in different industries and knowledge transfer processes in IT education. The book suggests a set of principles that potentially marry the client’s and the developer’s views of the future software product in order to avoid or to mitigate the crisis.
The book will be helpful for students, postdocs, theorists and practitioners in software development. It suggests approved principles and practices of crisis management for software development.
The technologies based on applying a metamodeling and domain-specific languages are widely used at information systems developing. There are many different tools for creating graphical domain-specific language editors with a possibility of determining user’s graphical notations. However they possess disadvantages. The MetaLanguage system is designed to eliminate some of these shortcomings. MetaLanguage is a language workbench which provides creation of visual dynamic adaptable domain-specific modeling languages used in the development of information systems. In paper the approach to development of MetaLanguage DSM-platform is considered. Basic metalanguage constructions of this system are described. The mathematical multilevel domain model with usage of pseudo-metagraphs is constructed. Definitions of the graph and metagraph are given. The algorithm of vertical models transformations is described. The architecture and implementation of the development environment of MetaLanguage toolkit is presented.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.