Order effects in the results of song contests: Evidence from the Eurovision and the New Wave
The results of song contests offer a unique opportunity to analyze possible distortions arising from various biases in performance evaluations using observational data. In this study we investigate the influence of contestants’ order of appearance on their ranking. We found that, in the New Wave Song Contest, expert judgments were significantly influenced by the contestant’s running number, an exogenous factor that, being assigned randomly, clearly did not influence the output quality. We also found weaker statistical evidence of such an ordering effect in Eurovision Song Contest finals of 2009–2012
Framing effect is one of the cognitive biases connected to effect of the wording on process of decision-making. To what degree do Russian language speakers demonstrate the effect? What kinds of sentence structures show the effect more clearly than others? Finally, what conclusions can be drawn about human cognitions based on phenomenon of the framing effect and general cognitive biases existence?
The problem of axiomatic and algorithmic constructions of the threshold decision making is studied in the case when individual opinions are given as m-graded strict preferences (with m ≥ 3). It is shown that the only rule satisfying the introduced axioms is the threshold rule. Two explicit algorithms are presented: the ordering algorithm, under which the vector-grades of alternatives are successively written out, and an enumerating social decision function corresponding to the natural order of the weak order equivalence classes.
High risk of informal behavior during the Olympic Games bid procedure requires some changes in the current system since the subjectivity in choosing the Olympic Games capital, risk of double selling of the votes and other informal behavior still exist.
Two studies investigated reciprocal effects of values and voting. Study 1 measured adults’ basic values and core political values both before (n=1379) and following (n=1030) the 2006 Italian national election. Both types of values predicted voting. Voting choice influenced subsequent core political values but not basic values. The political values of free enterprise, civil liberties, equality, law and order, military intervention, and accepting immigrants changed to become more compatible with the ideology of the chosen coalition. Study 2 measured core political values before (n=697) and following (n=506) the 2008 Italian national election. It largely replicated the reciprocal effects of voting and political values of Study 1. In addition, it demonstrated that left-right ideology mediated the reciprocal effects of voting and political values. Moreover, voter certainty moderated these effects. Political values predicted vote choice more weakly among undecided than decided voters, but voting choice led to more value change among undecided voters.
This compilation presents papers on the techniques of building global international university rankings, participation in them of Russian higher education institutions including the winners of 5/100/2020 Federal Project, the positions of national higher education in the international market of educational services. The authors analyze the methodology of ranking higher education institutions, the experience of developing rankings of leading universities in the Post-Soviet area and the BRICS countries. The authors are workers of Russian and foreign universities and research institutions as well as other organizations dealing with the development and analysis of rankings. The book is addressed to instructors, scientific workers, and to everybody interested in international education; global, regional, and national university rankings; the possibilities of enhancing the competitiveness of national higher education institutions. This edition is prepared in the framework of implementation of the Government resolution «On measures of state support of leading universities of the Russian Federation in order to enhance their competitiveness among the leading world scientific and educational centers» (as of 16 March 2013 № 211).
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.