Which came first, CEO compensation or firm performance? The causality dilemma in European companies
This study uses both a functionalist paradigm of social theory and agency theory assumptions to examine whether CEO remuneration is performance sensitive and, vice versa, whether companies that pay their CEOs more perform better. Our analysis is based on the sample of 330 large European firms for the period from 2009 to 2013. The findings of panel data analysis confirm that CEO compensation is positively associated with corporate performance, and vice versa. The simultaneous estimation, in which we treat both compensation and firm performance as endogenous using a two-stage least squares method, shows that companies tie bonuses to accounting-based measures and this incentive pay enhances corporate internal performance. However, compensation linked to market-based measures does not improve firm performance.
The paper is based on the study devoted to the ownership structure impact on corporate performance through the integrated conception of corporate financial architecture. The object of the study is top Russian and Brazilian public non-financial companies in the end of crisis 2008 year. First of all, we contribute to the literature by applying the integrated approach to corporate performance modeling. Second, we study the changes in corporate governance mechanisms during the global crisis (2008) and their influence over strategic performance. Finally, we conducted cross-country analysis of performance models in two of four BRIC countries.
In this paper the authors model the impact of state ownership as a component of the corporate financial architecture on corporate performance and conduct a cross-country analysis of this effect in order to identify the geopolitical differences. The cross-country analysis is focused on the level of development of the institutional mechanisms, designed to protect minority shareholders. The major findings of the paper are in line with a number of research papers’ results obtained in the developed and emerging markets. The contribution of this paper is the joint analysis of two different factors: state ownership and investor protection level and the development of the corporate performance model taking into account the joint influence of these factors as well as their interrelation.
During the last two decades corporate international diversification became a widely used growth strategy. However, the majority of scientific researches insist on its value-destroying pattern. Those of them which were based on accounting studies’ methodology and used current performance measures are likely to make an incomplete evaluation of corporate performance by accounting either for operating performance or financial (cost of capital) effects of internationalization. The current paper proposes a new approach for estimation of internalization-performance relationship which is based on economic profit concept. It allows to control simultaneously both operating and financial effects of internationalization on the firms’ current performance. The proposed model has been empirically tested on a sample of large companies from one of emerging economies - Russia. The results identify a non-linear U-shape relationship between a degree of internationalization and companies’ residual income (economic profit). The relationship is mainly determined by operating performance effects on economic profit while cost of capital has a modest effect. Overall for the majority of companies international diversification refers to decrease in economic profit. The results are compared against the Q-Tobin measure which incorporates expectations about future performance. A joint analysis of current performance (economic profit) and long-term performance (Q-Tobin) allows to expect the internationalization benefits to be realized in future. As an implication of the present research for corporate decision makers it may be stated that at the initial level of international diversification the internationalization decisions should be made with a high degree of caution. There should be a clear internationalization strategy based on definite mechanisms of performance improvement. The prestige and other irrational motives which may lead to the value destruction should be pruned.
In this paper we study the performance effects of capital structure, ownership structure and corporate governance mechanisms of Russian companies. To address the lack of research in corporate performance modeling in emerging markets we contribute to the literature by introducing cluster analysis of financial architecture and market performance of Russian companies. Our idea is to find out the efficient and inefficient types of financial architecture in emerging markets. On the sample of 50+ largest Russian nonfinancial companies within the period of 2005-2010 years we demonstrate existence of three sustainable types of financial architecture in Russia. Using cluster analysis we form the cluster of companies in pre-crisis period and then demonstrate the relationship between the financial architecture type and level of market performance of the company.