Lexical Diversity in Different Types of Aphasia
Abstract. There is currently a great need for modern, standardized neuropsychological tests for language assessment in Russian speakers with aphasia. Our group is working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT). Within the scope of this work, two subtests for single-word comprehension of nouns and verbs were developed considering contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics. The task for both subtests was spoken word-to-picture matching. The subtests were normed on individuals with aphasia (n = 45) and a control group (n = 30). This resulted in the final set of 30 diagnostic trials for nouns and verbs matched on relevant psychometric properties which are sensitive to language impairments for both fluent and non-fluent types of aphasia. This set of trials will be included in the final version of the RAT.
The present study shows how the use of linguistic theory and method contributes to understanding the patterns of language loss in individuals with local brain damage. Application of the method of referential communication that allows to analyze speech interaction in the process of real communication resulted in revealing qualitative and quantitative peculiarities of lexical choice in patients with linguistic deficit.
Aphasia is language impairment due to brain damage. Word-finding and word-retrieval problems can be very prominent in the speech of people with aphasia, being detectable in almost every aphasic speaker. On the other hand, word-finding difficulties and speech errors can sometimes oc-cur in speech of neurologically healthy people. It is assumed that the same psycholinguistic levels of word-retrieval breakdown can account for the mistakes of both groups. In the meanwhile, retrieving of a single word from mental lexicon is not the only possible level of hindrance for a speaker: ref-erential and lexical choices that take place at more general discourse and pragmatic level can also be disturbed. The Russian CLiPS—Russian CLinical Pear Stories—is a corpus of film-elicited narratives retrieved following(Chafe, 1980) methodology from healthy and language-impaired cohorts. The aim of our research was to in-vestigate the characteristics of formal markers of word retrieval difficulties in narratives of neurologically healthy people and people with aphasia. Three types of markers were considered(discourse markers, false starts and self-corrections) in the nominations of common referents of Pear sto-ries narratives. The markers at different breakdown levels are qualitatively analysed, creating a platform for future analysis.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.