Central Asia at 25
Central Asia, despite being referred to as a single region, represent five countries with diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds and different ways in which political and economic transformation took place in the last twenty five years since independence from the Soviet Union. Within these countries, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan have relatively advanced in market reforms, while Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan still have not completed their transition to a market economy and Tajikistan represents a middle case.
In many respects, historical legacy of the 20th century and unique geographical and geopolitical location did not help Central Asian countries in their efforts for economic development and integration.
After experiencing more than a decade of growth based on hydrocarbon boom, Central Asian countries are faced with increasing challenges resulting from declining commodity prices, trade and migrant remittances. The main policy challenge is to move away from commodity-based growth strategies to macro-oriented diversification and adoption of a broad spectrum of economic, institutional and political reforms. However, structural diversification is easier said than done.
Major obstacles to the political reform and economic diversification efforts in the five Central Asian economies are posed by internal and external geopolitical factors and deeply embedded institutional weaknesses within countries, particularly in areas where economic management interacts with authoritarian political systems and legal institutions. Our analysis suggests five key policy lessons that could serve as points of departure as these countries move ahead.
This book considers several aspects of the transformation of the former state socialist countries: social and economic outcomes; forces in the transformation process; problems of consolidation of the new regimes; and alternative scenarios. The book evaluates the course of transformation of state socialist societies. It focuses on economic change and its impact on inequality and health. Comparisons are made between the successful central European countries now members of the European Union with those of the former Soviet Union. There are detailed studies of the transformation of the (former) German Democratic Republic, Czech Republic, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, as well as the impact on Poland. A feature of the book is the impact of the collapse of state socialism on countries of Asia and the Third World. Alternative scenarios are considered, with specific chapters on China, Cuba, and North Korea. The book contemplates the alternative types of society that might replace state socialism, particularly state capitalism and market socialism.
The presented article describes evolution of the "awbash" term, which was used to determine specific groups of urban population in Iran and Central Asia. It has been confirmed that on particular stages of develpment of these groups, this term was a synonym for determination of the traditional masculine communities of luti (Iran) or ulufta (Mawara al-Nahr) in muslim cities of the Persianate world. Awbashi were deeply connected with giuld organisations and system of ward self-regulation, playing specific role in the strcuture of urban society.
There are potentialities of using of M.A. Usmanov’s methods (developed for research of official acts of the the Golden Horde and its successors) conformably to study of legal acts of Central Asian khanates of 16th – beginning of 20th cc. are examined in this article. Author analyzes historiography of study of Central Asian legal acts, reveals several mistakes made by previous scholars, clarifies opportunities of applying of M.A. Usmanov’s methods to meet lacks and remove stereotypes about law of Central Asian khanates which were made before. Using of M.A. Usmanov’s methods, in particular, allows us to observe the succession of legal development of late medieval Central Asian khanates from the Mongol Empire, Golden Horde and other imperial states of Chinggisids, reveal co-relation of Islamic and Chinggisid (“khans”) law in these states, saving in it of Mongolian imperial legal institutions, principles and regulations.
The article is based on the results of the survey of migrant workers from Central Asia in Moscow and Moscow region. One of the key issues of the study was the degree of adaptation of migrants to life in the capital. The article discusses the issue both from the point of view of experts on labor migration and of the migrants themselves.
The article is devoted to the Asia-Pacifi c Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum to be held and presided by the Russian Federation in early September 2012 in Vladivostok. The article gives the background for establishing the APEC, describes its goals and decisions adopted. It defi nes the APEC's place in the global economy as the largest association of States, which accounts for more than half of global GDP and which has set ambitious targets for establishing a free trade zone, liberalizing the investment climate and promoting regional integration. The article examines the major events in the global energy sector that triggered off the structural energy crisis in the early XXI century, causing the need for ensuring a global international energy security. The author suggests that the issue of energy security as a factor in implementing the strategic objectives of the APEC's economic and social development should be put on the agenda of the Forum. In this connection, the article analyzes the Draft Convention on Ensuring International Energy Security proposed by the Russian Federation for discussion and possible adoption. The article also puts forward several proposals for deepening regional integration to promote the development of the Far East and Siberia, and the creation of a new export base and promoting the Eastern vector of the Russian foreign economic cooperation policy.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.