К вопросу автоматизации выбора специализированной САПР
The paper proposes a generic methodology for the selection of a specialized CAD-based application of methods for decision support, in particular the method of analytic hierarchy process and the method of preference functions. Bothe methods take into account the opinion of decision-makers (project Manager, engineer and designer). The proposed method makes it possible to automate the process of selecting a CAD on the websites of the distributors from the point of view of the given criteria and restrictions due to the introduction of scales of criteria for the evaluation of CAD. It allows to use the experience knowledge of experts in a particular field and to reduce the time for decision-making if necessary. The choice of specialized computer-aided design are considered on the example of choice of printed circuit boards (PCB design) CAD for industrial enterprises and companies engaged in the development of electronic computing from available alternatives offered on the websites of the vendors, and distributors.
The article considers the selection of management systems of transportation activities. A review of IT-solutions for the transport and logistics business, existing in the Russian market, is given and an approach is offered justifying the assessment of functional and non-functional characteristics of the system being implemented. It is based on modern methods, which help to select software, which is suitable for targets.
The article considers questions of the most rational variant’s choice of IP-blocks proposed on the manufacturers and suppliers sites for the SoC design. The aim of this work is to develop techniques of selecting IP-block on the basis of decision making methods application. The proposed method allows using the experience and knowledge of experts in a given subject area and the opinion of decision-makers (project Manager, engineer, designer). The technique is based on an original procedures combination of lexicographic ordering method, analytical hierarchy method and preferences method. Person usually doesn't make mistakes while performing that methods. The ranking results of the proposed IP according to the degree of preference blocks obtained by using this methodology will enable designers to make better SoC design decisions. The technique allows to automate the selecting process of the most appropriate IP-block variants in terms of given criteria and constraints and allows to reduce the decision-making period.
The basic Smart-education elements are considered in the article: the university facilities; the information sources types; the way of the educational process organization; the number of educational group; the technology of an information presentation; the technology of the organization of current and total knowledge control; the knowledge presentation speed according to a particular student; the sequence and the number of the simultaneous studied objects; the students preferences. The questions of the trajectory choice in the of Smart-education environment are discussed. The authors give the approximate content of a possible education trajectory. The article offers the technique of the education trajectory choice based on the decision-making support methods. The specified technique allows using both expert’s knowledge and experience in various fields of the organization and ensuring educational process, and the requirements of students. The article considers both group and individual decision-making methods. The authors prove the method choice for the task solution. The article shows an example of the minimum distance method application for the expert’s opinions coordination while choosing the alternative educational trajectories. The example of the hierarchy analysis method application while choosing one of the alternative educational trajectories recommended by experts is shown. The offered technique allows to automate the process of the most rational education trajectory choice and to reduce decision-making time and costs.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.