Corporate risk-taking, returns and the nature of major shareholders: Evidence from prospect theory
This paper analyses the relation between corporate risk-taking and firm performance for a sample of international listed firms over the period 2001–2013. We consider the approaches on individual behavior (specifically prospect theory) to propose a U-shaped relation between corporate risk-taking and firm returns. We find that firms adopt an attitude of risk-seeking when the expected performance is below a target performance (to avoid an anticipated loss) and an attitude of risk averse when the performance exceeds that target. This relation is affected by the economic context and the nature of the major shareholder: Firms controlled by families or institutional investors react more conservatively (taking or avoiding risk) to changes in corporate results. We are aware that our results, are affected by both the theoretical model and the temporal and spatial framework used.
Resume of the 17th April Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development
The article shows that the business world is Russia at the turn of XIX - XX centuries. had two centers of gravity: if cost (especially in heavy industry and in the banking sector) dominated the Petersburg, in the cultural and socio-political attitude of the province gravitated more to Moscow. While the leaders of big business in Moscow was made by the spokesmen of the interests of the majority of the Russian business of the Corporation.
The work contains diagnosing оf the problems in the Russian domestic savings; detailed analysis of 27 foreign pension systems in the world and instruments of development policy in collective investments in the United States, the European Union and the BRICS countries; quantitative study of factors affecting the level of development of pension funds and collective investments in 50 countries.
We address the influence of directors who represent institutional investors in three aspects of board compensation policies: level of compensation, composition, and performance sensitivity. We differentiate pressure-sensitive directors (i.e., with business links) and pressure-resistant directors (i.e., without business links). Our results show that pressure-resistant directors decrease total board compensation and its fixed proportion, whereas they increase the variable proportion of total remuneration and the pay-for-performance sensitivity. By contrast, pressure-sensitive directors offer the opposite results. These findings are consistent with the view that institutional investors are not a homogeneous group and that pressure-resistant directors fulfill a more thorough monitoring role. © 2013 ACEDE.
We study the role of institutional deficiences, i.e. corruption, in affecting the innovative performance of family firms versus non-family businesses in 7 European countries and Russia that represent two large geographical areas with different history of institutional development. A comparative quantitative empirical analysis is based on the common self-edentitication of family firms and identical sample design of surveys implemented in EU in 2010 and in Russia in 2014, correspondingly. Keeping in mind the regional embeddedness of family firms (Stough et al, 2015) our analysis is extended at the regional level where regions are classified in two groups: with high and low level of corruption. Results show that propbability of family firms to innovate, either by the introduction of a new product or a new process, is higher than non-family firms in the case of the EU sample. As far as the role of corruption at the regional level, Russian family firms appear to be more innovative in regions with low corruption level while for European firms the results are mixed.
The aim of the research is to conduct an empirical investigation and reveal what types of globalization and innovation strategies in turbulent and unfavorable regional institutional environment are most likely to be associated with different trajectories of Russian manufacturing firms’ performance in 2007- 2012. We employ the results of empirical survey of 1000 medium and large enterprises in manufacturing (2009) linked to financial data from Amadeus database and the data on the regional institutional environment. We test that (1) introduction of innovations before the crisis ceteris paribus helped the firms to successfully pass the crisis and recover. We expect that (2) companies that became globalized before the crisis (via importing of intermediate and capital goods; exporting; FDI; establishment of partner linkages with foreign firms) ceteris paribus are more likely to successfully pass the crisis and grow. And (3) propose the positive effect of synergy of innovation efforts and globalization strategy of the firm. We expect that the abovementioned factors are complimentary and reinforce the ability of the firm to recover after crisis shock. We found strong support for the hypothesis that firms financing introduction of new products before the crisis and simultaneously managed to promote and sell them on the global market were rewarded by quick return to the growing path after global crisis. Other strategies, i.e. solely innovations without exporting play insignificant role while exporting without attempts to introduce new products contribute even negatively to post-crisis recover. Institutional environment also matters: in the regions with less level of corruption firms were more likely to grow after the crisis
We examine whether the behavior of institutional investors representatives on boards leads to observable differences in corporate finance. We find that directors representing pressure-sensitive investors (i.e., banks and insurance companies) prefer lower financial leverage whereas pressure-resistant directors (i.e., mutual funds and pension funds) show no particular preference. When analysed separately, directors appointed by banks and insurance firms have different attitudes. Bank representatives on boards increase both the financial leverage and the banking debt. This result suggests that some types of institutional directors provide financial resources to the firms on whose board they sit, supporting the view that boards manage the uncertainty associated with strategic decision making and provide firms with preferential access to resources and financial expertise. This research has interesting academic and policy implications for the debate over the proper degree of institutional involvement in corporate governance. Different institutional investors have different agendas and incentives for corporate governance, and, therefore, both researchers and policy makers should no longer consider institutional investors as a whole. In addition, our paper calls for new research on the causes and implications of institutional investors involvement in the corporate governance of nonfinancial firms. This new research could require new insights on the dynamics within the boards and on the interplay among the knowledge, incentives and attitudes of quite different directors.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.