Вокалотерапия: перспектива эмпирического исследования
The paper considers the process of formation of vocal therapy as an integral part of humanity. It includes a historical overview of the development of vocal practices in different psychotherapeutic contexts (person-centered expressive therapy, voice movement therapy, therapeutic songwriting). It also examines two concepts of singing: impressive, having as its main objective the certain impressions on the audience, "public singing", based on musical education and vocal performing skills, and expressive, focusing on the expression of human himself, his experiences and subjective states "community singing". Therapeutic vocalizations are the means of self-expression and self-inquiry. The authors focus – person-centered versions of psychotherapy practice (free associative singing, vocal improvisation, authentic singing). These practices allow realizing authentic vocalizations of the client or his authentic voice (the voice of his inner Self). According to the person-centered approach, the personal attitudes of therapist (congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy) as necessary and sufficient conditions for positive personal change are implemented not only in client-centered psychotherapy, but in any other situation of communication, the purpose of which is human development. From the point of view of the authors these conditions are created in the practice of authentic vocalizations. Authentic vocalizations of the client are considered as insonations of his congruent (undistorted) experiences. Using a three-part model of congruency experiences, the authors classifies the possible manifestations of the subjective experience of the client, identifies congruent experience and the six types of incongruent experiences. Congruent experience is defined as expressed undistorted experience. According to the assumption of the authors the congruent experiences are represented in the practice of authentic vocalizations. If the inauthentic vocalizations of the client are the insonations of his incongruent experiences, and thus form the voice of his personality or outer Self, the authentic vocalizations can be seen as insonifications of his congruent (undistorted) experiences, as the voice of his essence or inner Self. The psychological study of authentic vocalizations is an important area of empirical investigations of ultimate foundations of humanity.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.