Introduction: the theory of popular sovereignty, J.-J. Rousseau was first introduced into political practice during the French Revolution. Rousseau was the ideologue of the revolution, and the principle of popular sovereignty was proclaimed by the French Constitutions. Objective: to identify the transformation of the main provisions of the theory of popular sovereignty J.-J. Rousseau's in political concepts of the French revolutionaries and revolutionary practice. Methods: the methodological framework of this study constitute a set of methods of scientific knowledge, among which the main place is occupied by the methods of historicism, systematic, comparative legal. Results: it was found that the theory of popular sovereignty was significantly altered during the French Revolution. Identified the differences in the understanding in the concept of the people. Characterized the theory of popular representation in terms of its compliance with the idea of direct democracy. Reviewed the development of ideas about the structure of the government. Conclusion: the doctrine of the French Revolution took the theory of popular sovereignty, J.-J. Rousseau with significant limitations significantly transformed the concept of the nation and its general will. In political practice was introduced institute of national representation. The concept of popular sovereignty was supplemented by the principle of the inalienable rights of individuals and ideas about the need to introduce a system of additional mechanisms to protect the sovereignty of the people against the encroachments of power from its actual holders.
The authors examine political texts of the French theorists of liberalism – JeanJacques Rousseau and Benjamin Constant – in the context of the ratio between individual freedom and interests of the state. In their theoretical constructions, Rousseau and Constant have many similarities, as well as certain differences related to the peculiarities of the political situation at the time of their life and work. Their political concepts could undergo some corrections due to the political conjuncture. The intellectuals had to respond to high rates of political transformations, increasing attention to the individual or, on the contrary, to the public interest. The question of the ratio between individual freedom and state interests is still relevant in all polities claiming adherence to democratic principles. Therefore, the study of the dialogue between the two French liberal thinkers resonates with contemporary political practice.
The articles examines the nationalistic and imperial imagination of three Russian writers (Apollon Maikov, Ivan Goncharov and Alexei Pisemsky), who proposed their own versions of the so-called "Russian Idea" during the Crimean War (1853-56). Exploring the misture of various discourses in their lyrics, journalism and sketches, the article offers the new understanding of the nationalization of patriotism in the literary realm.