This article advances the idea of cultural and individual values being connected to each other not directly, but through the consciousness and activity, which presupposes the integral unity of cultural-historic methodological approach and the activity methodological approach in psychological researches. Activity effects mainly on forming of the consciousness and personality: it underlies them. In the cultural-historic approach such basis, in a way, a unit of analysis of consciousness and personality, is a value-oriented experience. The necessity of integration of the activity approach with cultural-historic approach lies in the integral ontology of psyche, behavior, activity, experience, sense, consciousness, personality, culture and its values.
The article discusses the process of formation and evolution of the concept of Free will in the period of late Anquity and Middle Ages and also reasons of the fact that this concept became a foundation of European interpretation of personality and social teaching of the Catholic Church. The analysis was conducted on the basis of official legal documents of the Catholic Church, as well as on the basis of writings of Doctor of the Church. The compilation of theological and legal approaches makes it possible to assess influence of the catholic teaching on the formation of legal doctrine and West European mental model in comparative perspective.
The paper analyzes the dynamics of psychological views of Alexander F. Lazurski (1874-1917), the author of one of the first personality theories in the world psychology. In Lazurzki’s work two successive stages can be distinguished, one of them connected with the problem of character as inner individual-typological basis of personality, and the second is characterized by the introduction and intensive elaboration of the idea of attitudes to the outside world as important components of the personality structure. Lazurski’s place in the world psychology of personality is highlighted.
It analyses polysemantic terms the subject, the personality, the selfhood and which form sincrets for example subjectivity of selfhood and etc. It reconstructs interpretation of these terms by G.G. Shpet, S.L. Rubinshtein, B.M. Teplov, A.N. Leontiev, etc. It affirms that the main theme of psychological investigation is the personality. On the ontological plane we have two ways of personality: down - to the subject - to a function or to collection of functions, to subject; and up - to the selfhood - to an ideal, to the limit of self-construction, to spirituality and freedom.
The author seeks the origins of a specific political ceremony that was quite common not only in medieval but also in early modern Germanic Länder. When solemnly entering a city, the riding prince used to be surrounded by criminals, previously convicted by local courts and sentenced to exile. He brought these convicts with him back into the city from which they had been expelled. This form of amnesty used to be explained by many German scholars mostly in terms of the ‘sacred kingship’ (Sakralkönigtum) as deriving from the charisma of ancient Germanic chieftains or late Roman emperors. They appealed also to the Sachsenspiegel and Schwabespiegel, as if these law books could reveal the basic juridical norms that made it possible for the princes to grant their pardon to exiled criminals. The article argues that the custom had nothing in common either with Roman emperors, ancient chieftains and ‘sacred kingship’, or with the ‘Mirrors’—both these habitual explanations are in fact nothing more than historiographical myths. The author claims that this highly impressive element of royal and princely representation did not even emerge in Germany but was borrowed there only in the late middle ages from an alien royal tradition, and for its roots one should in fact look not to kings but rather to bishops.