Теория экономического роста: новые методы и возможности
Thе author studies the reasons and consequences of major changes in methods and subjects of economic growth theory. The transformation of growth theory is going on in three main directions. Firstly, the focus of research shifts to the studies of fundamental reasons of differences in incomes per capita among countries and this shift is related with the exploration of a new class of models. Secondly, the advancement in data analysis and access to new historical data helps to test new theories and create new growth empirics. Finally, growth theory changes its focus from the analysis of balanced growth path properties to the reasons of major qualitative changes in economic dynamics. The paper shows new perspectives for the growth theory and gives forecasts of its future development.
The paper provides a framework for analysis of optimal growth enhancing policy in the economy with market and government failures. It develops an endogenous growth model with strategic complementarities between R&D investments of firms and investments in training of households. The model generates two possible long-run equilibriums: no-growth poverty trap equilibrium and stable sustainable growth equilibrium. In the extended version of the model with government failures we assume that some part of government revenue is expropriated by rent seeking agents. With these conditions we analyze the possibility of transition from stagnation to growth induced by government investment subsidies and other factors.
Implementing the Strategy of Spatial Development of the Russian Federation involves various regional policy measures and requires choosing the most appropriate tools. The issue gains importance in case of combining the search for additional sources of growth with an integrated system for assessing the efficiency of the existing measures. Admittedly, such system in the Russian Federation is still in its formation. Therefore, in order to implement public policy, it is crucial to critically analyse the most significant aspects of the methodology for assessing the efficiency. The concept of «efficiency», apart from efficiency itself, includes he performance, impact, and usability of the tool. The assessment of the efficiency varies in different countries, as it is not a single practice that can be applied regardless of geographical and historical context. The paper substantiates the idea that the assessment of the efficiency includes the examination of social, cultural and political elements
The chapter is devoted to the long-run aspects of economic growth. We show the impacts of changes in the basic mode of production upon the evolution of economic thought in this research field. The challenges of perspective technological shifts to contemporary growth theories are discussed in the last part of the chapter.
We propose a two-sector unified growth model, in which the speed of industrialization depends on the outcome of political conflict between the heterogeneous interest groups differing with respect to capital and land ownership. The distribution of capital and land determines agents’ political preferences and their incentives to invest in lobbying for development or blocking modern sector development. The probability that pro-growth policies are realized depends on the aggregate lobbying of two competing groups. We demonstrate that higher concentration of land ownership hampers the development of the modern sector, while higher concentration of capital ownership within the landless agents increases political support of pro-growth reforms and increases the pace of industrialization. Our model also explains the non-monotonous dynamics of political conflict intensity, which corresponds well with structural changes and GDP per capita growth observed in historical data.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.