Репрезентация культурной травмы: музеефикация холокоста
The article analyzes the problem of the representation of one of the greatest cultural traumas of the twentieth century — the Holocaust — in various Jewish museums (Washington, Berlin, Moscow). They are united by the important social function of perpetuating and edification, but each museum has its own context and creates its own form of representation, rhetoric and measure of the performance and memory about the events of Jewish history. Concepts and exposure of these museums are immersed in a context of general social debate about the trauma, its principal expressibility, mediatization and visualization. The research field of trauma contains an internal contradiction. This contradiction is inherent, on the one hand, the idea of which came from the psychoanalysis of inexpressible injury (T.Adorno, Jean-François Lyotard, Sh.Felman, D. Laub, Caruth C. et al.), and, on the other hand, the opinion of globalization and mediatization injury (V.Kansteiner, E.Kaplan, J.Aleksander, A.Hyussen). The discourse about the Holocaust is globalized, but the memory of the Holocaust victims is functioning glocal, taking into account the specific local context of traumatic events. As a consequence, museumfication of Holocaust generates diverse field of aesthetic representations. The article stresses the peculiarity of these museums focus on sensual work with the past called for the exchange of experiences and emotions in addition to rational knowledge, an invitation to identify. In comparison of museums, it becomes evident that modern museum exhibitions and performances to varying degrees provoke the visitor to identify with the collective subject of history through a simulated experience of the suffering of others, which is impossible without emotions, sympathy and working memory. But the therapeutically simulated traumatization through acquaintance with the phenomenon of the Holocaust is not justified in any socio-political and cultural context
The article shows the importance of philosophy Ricker for theoretical sociology. Perspectives of sociology associated with a combination of theories and theories of action events. Action theory developed in sociology and theory of events is not. Ricoeur philosophy - one of the possible intellectual resources in order to change this situation.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
The collective monograph is devoted to problems related to the correlation of history, memory and identity. It presents some research results aimed at a comparative analysis of the processes and mechanisms of constructing national and national-state identities. In maintaining and “reformatting” collective memory and identity, the important role belongs to the deep-rooted national historiographic traditions, which define a canonized image of the past in the form of a national or national-state narrative demonstrating main “places of memory” and symbols of "common fate." The authors of the monograph examine key aspects of the topic on the basis of the history and historiography of Russia, individual countries of Europe and Latin America with significantly different conditions and trajectories of the national identity formation.
Meaningful life is emotionally marked off. That’s the general point that Johansen (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 44, 2010) makes which is of great importance. Fictional abstractions use to make the point even more salient. As an example I’ve examined Borges’ famous fiction story. Along with the examples of Johansen it provides an informative case of exploring symbolic mechanisms which bind meaning with emotions. This particular mode of analysis draws forth poetry and literature in general to be treated as a “meaningful life laboratory”. Ways of explanation of emotional effect the art exercises on people, which had been disclosed within this laboratory, however, constitute a significant distinction in terms that I have designated as “referential” and “substantive”. The former appeals to something that has already been charged with emotional power, whereas the latter comes to effect by means of special symbolic mechanisms creating the emotional experience within the situation. Johansen, who tends to explain emotions exerted by the art without leaving the semiotic perspective, is drawn towards the “referential” type of explanation. Based upon discussions in theory of metaphor and Robert Witkin’s sociological theory of arts it is demonstrated an insufficient of “referential” explanation. To overcome a monopoly of “referential” explanation of emotional engagement, in particular, in literature, means to break away from the way of reasoning, stating endless references to “something else”, presupposing the existence of something already significant and therefore sharing its effects.