Эйджизм на российском рынке труда: дискриминация в заработной плате
Ageism at the Russian Labour Market: Wage Discrimination This paper analyses ageism at the Russian labour market, in particular, wage discrimination. We conduct empirical study based on the data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS HSE), years 2004–2015. We apply econometric methods, using Mincer equations and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. The results confirm the wage discrimination for elder workers: for males it starts from 45–54 years and for females from 55–64 years. Our analysis also reveals possibilities to compensate age discrimination by means of specific job tenure and education. The paper concludes with recommendations for employers’ and public policies with regard to an ageing labour force.
Till 2008 remuneration system based on the unified tariff scale was officially implemented for the public sector of the Russian economy. New remuneration system (NRS) is intended to differentiate wages more clearly, bring it into compliance with output of labour input, eliminate the disproportion in the structure of employment, which are common for public sector. In this work was made an effort to estimate results of the remuneration reform with the example of medical institutions of three regions, which sequentially introduced NRS in 2008-2009. The estimates based on the Monitoring of healthcare economic problems microdata reveal the increase of wages and salaries within institutions that adopted NRS.
The book addresses one of the most relevant issues on the current social agenda – the building of an inclusive society. It covers income, gender and age equality, disability rights, immigrant and language minority rights, inclusive education, body positivity and animal rights. The book is based on up-to-date authentic texts (official documents, newspaper and magazine articles, public speeches) and contains a system of exercises aimed at enhancing communication skills, expanding vocabulary and developing analytical and critical thinking skills.
The book is targeted at graduate students of the foreign language faculties.
This chapter is dedicated to the gender pay gap (GPG) in Russia. First, it provides a review of the existing literature, covering key studies published in international and Russian academic journals. This investigation distinguishes between studies examining GPG in the 1990s and those analyzing the later period, briefly describing their focus and key findings regarding traditional economic explanations of GPG: differences in the amount of human capital between genders, family factors, industrial and occupational employment segregation, and discrimination. Second, this chapter presents and discusses the results of the standard Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of GPG during the period from 1994 to 2018, by using RLMS-HSE micro-data. Finally, it formulates a few stylized facts and conclusions concerning the size, evolution, and sources of GPG in Russia and outlines some promising avenues for future research.
The paper attempts to quantify the effect of employment discrimination on the basis of disability status in Russia. We use data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey - Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) for 2005. This round of the RLMS HSE included a question on the presence of limitations on usual activities. The question allows distinguishing the effect of unobservable differences in productivity from the effect of discrimination on the basis of disability status. Parametric and nonparametric methods of decomposition are used to solve a problem of non-comparability of disabled and able-bodied individuals and to control for unobserved differences in productivity. Our findings show that nonparametric methods are more applicable to disability discrimination studies due to “lack of common support” problem. The evidence suggests that individuals with poor health face substantial discrimination on the basis of disability status in Russia. The discrimination explains up to 25 percent points of the total gap in employment probabilities. This effect should be interpreted as an upper bound of the discrimination after control for differences in observed and unobserved productivity characteristics. The effect may still include the impact of cash and non-cash disability benefits, self-selection into disability, environmental barriers, and wage discrimination. Our findings imply that current policy measures are not efficient in facilitating employment of the disabled.
The article deals with the results of a study of factors affecting the level of perceived discrimination against older people in Russia and Israel. Based on data from the European Social Survey (ESS Round 4 in 2008) significant differences in the level of perceived discrimination against older people in Russia and Israel, as well as various factors that influence the discrimination in these countries have been found.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.