Thermodynamics of localized magnetic moments in a Dirac conductor
We show that the magnetic susceptibility of a dilute ensemble of magnetic impurities in a conductor with a relativistic electronic spectrum is nonanalytic in the inverse temperature at
. We derive a general theory of this effect and construct the high-temperature expansion for the disorder averaged susceptibility to any order, convergent at all temperatures down to a possible ordering transition. When applied to Ising impurities on a surface of a topological insulator, the proposed general theory agrees with Monte Carlo simulations, and it allows us to find the critical temperature of the ferromagnetic phase transition.