Приобретение и применение знаний: динамика целей при управлении сложной системой – виртуальной фабрикой
Background. Understanding the relations between user perception and aesthetics is crucial for web design. But it is frequent in today’s graphic and media design that rules, established by practitioners even before the advent of Internet and still untested empirically, are taught at design schools and widely used for online interface design. So far, there is no well-established linkage between the in-class recommendations and our empirical knowledge on usability, for which design plays a role just as crucial as web projecting. Will webpages that are better from the designers’ viewpoint perform better in terms of usability? And can one have a list of recommendations tested empirically? This is especially important for large-scale organizational web spaces where design plays a huge role in brand recognition and visual unity. Large web spaces need complex ergonomic assessment both on the level of selected nodes and on that of architecture/navigation. Of many large web spaces, university portals suit best for elaboration and pre-testing of such a methodology, as they serve various publics, contain sub-domains, and often face criticism for their user-unfriendly design and messy structure. Objectives. We aim at creating a two-level usability expert test for a large web space that would be based on design recommendations tested empirically, thus eliminating the necessity of tech-based assessment of newcoming products. In this paper, we elaborate the node-level methodology. For this, basing on leading design literature, we create a page usability index (U-index) for ‘good’ design that provides quantitative measurement for traditional design decisions on the micro- and macro-level of a web page. Then, we test by eye tracking whether ‘better’ design (corresponding to higher U-index values) favors a particular pattern of content consumption – not ‘random search’ but more efficient ‘reading’. Research design. To check whether web design measured qualitatively correlates with perception of web pages as tested by eye tracking, we first define target nodes by collecting the hyperlink structure and constructing web graphs for three web spaces of the biggest universities in the USA and Russia (Harvard University, Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University). For this, we combine web crawling and web analytics. Second, we construct the U-index with the maximum value of 22. Third, to assess user perception of the target web pages, we create a series of tasks on information search and measure three test parameters (number of eye fixations, duration of fixations, and saccade length) and their derivatives, as well as heat maps. To avoid bias in quantitative measurement, we use two eye trackers (one head-fixed, one stationary) to test the results in parallel. Fourth, for finding correlations between U-index and eye-tracking results, descriptive statistics (Spearman’s rho and Cramer’s V) is used. Results. First of all, our results suggest that various types of eye tracking hardware produce very different test results; this implies that eye tracking research always needs pre-testing. Second, we see that heat maps may be very suitable in express assessment of the web design quality, which speaks in favor of preserving some eye tracking tests in the final methodology. Third, we see substantial difference between Russian universities and Harvard: the latter, indeed, shows that features of web design correlate with eye tracking experience of the assessors, while for the Russian university websites, even after their repeated attempts of redesign, it remains unclear whether web design contributes to better user experience. For Harvard, the web pages with a higher usability index tend to facilitate ‘reading’ instead of ‘search’. Fourth, micro-level elements of the layout seem to contribute more to the general index and, thus, may deserve bigger attention of web designers.
The study is focused on the role of uncertainty in solving various complex problems. Solving of complex problems is a relatively new and exciting area of research. Indeed, there is a great interest among researchers to understand how people deal with complex, novel task situations. The main target is to understand how uncertainty changes when the participants try to find the solution in complex dynamic situation. The uncertainty can be defined as cognitive and emotional estimates of unknown, unclear and unanticipated consequences of actions in context of complex situations. In that way the uncertainty seems to be a mix of subjective feeling and estimations. The complex task was simulated by the computer-based scenario proposed by D. Dörner- "Chocolate Factory 2.13". The experimental results for problem-solving behavior in complex dynamic systems describe the dynamics of subjective uncertainty. In this case the subjective uncertainty is gradually reduced. The main factor of this process is the dynamics of motivation which depends on the efficiency of complex problem solving.
In 2012 the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), for the first time in the history of large-scale assessments, included a new type of problems called “interactive problems”. This article will analyze the problems. The research area behind it is the psychology of complex problem solving in a complex multi-factor environment which involves search, experimenting and control in conditions of uncertainty. The article discusses the new opportunities that open up and the problems that arise in introducing such problems in large-scale assessment practice, with particular focus on the problem of standard assessment of creative problems. It looks at the growing importance of studies into exploratory behavior and “experimentation with experimentation” and their impact on education policy.
Full text (Russian): Poddiakov, A. (2012). Reshenie kompleksnykh problem v PISA-2012 i PISA-2015: vzaimodeistvie so slozhnoi real'nost'yu [Complex Problem Solving at PISA 2012 and PISA 2015: Interaction with Complex Reality]. Obrazovatel'naya Politika, 6, 34-53. http://edupolicy.ru/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Poddjakov-No.6.2012.pdf
Full text (English translation): Poddiakov, A. (2012). Complex Problem Solving at PISA 2012 and PISA 2015: Interaction with Complex Reality]. Obrazovatel'naya Politika, 6, 34-53. https://www.hse.ru/data/2013/11/24/1337084180/cps-in-pisa.docx
Understanding the mechanisms of visual perception is important in the context of both media research and its applications in design practice. Within the functional approach to interface design, eye tracking is an established method to analyze interface efficacy. At the same time, in today's media design, many rules have been established by practitioners and remain untested. In this mixed-method study, we combine web crawling, web analytics and heat map analysis based on eye tracking, and qualitative usability analysis of composite-graphic model of a website. We check whether eye tracking test results (numeric data and heat map analysis) correlate to usability of key pages of a large website, as measured qualitatively according to recommendations of leading design literature. Among large web spaces, university website clusters represent a special type and suit well for our analysis, as they unite very different publics and are multi-task. We elaborate and pre-test the methodology on three sites of leading universities in the USA and Russia (Harvard University, Moscow State University and St.Petersburg State University). Our results suggest that there is no direct link between design-based elements of page usability and numeric eye tracking data, but heat maps show correlation with design quality; this means we need to continue checking the suggested methodology on larger number of assessors.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.