Дифференциация заработной платы в России: региональный и профессиональный аспекты
The article considers results of the study on wage inequality in Russia, which was based on data from a sample survey of companies by categories of personnel and occupational groups of workers, conducted by Federal State Statistics Service in October 2011 and 2013.
The authors compared wage inequality in Russia and other countries. The wage inequality within regions and occupational groups was analyzed in order to estimate the contributions of regional and occupational wage inequality into the total wage inequality. The authors identified the regions with the highest and lowest rates of intra-regional wage inequality and revealed the occupational groups with the highest and lowest rates of intra-group wage inequality.
Decomposition of the entropy indexes showed the effect of various socio-demographic factors and the factors characterizing the employment of workers on the wage inequality. It was shown that the wage inequality a worker faced within his occupational group on the local labor market is 30-50% less than the total wage inequality in Russia. In the meantime age, gender and type of ownership of the enterprise make a relatively small contribution. Such factors as the type of economic activity of the enterprise, education and employment of the employee group made a more significant contribution. Additionally, the analysis shows that all of these factors explain better the differentiation of the distribution in the lower wages, while in the upper part of distribution series their influence was not so significant.
Finally, the authors proposed solutions to reduce the differentiation of wages in Russia.
The paper studies the sources of gender segregation on the within-firm level and its effect on gender wage gap. In compare to numerous of papers devoted to gender segregation, this research is based on unique personnel data from one of Russian industrial firm for the period from 2002 to 2006. It's shown that generation and fastening of segregated employment structures can be explained, firstly, by initial job assignments and, secondly, by gender differences in promotion paths for male and female workers. Estimations of the gender wage gap afford to conclude that it is largely driven by gender segregation between job positions and hierarchical levels rather than by worker's characteristics.
This paper examines the influence of tobacco smoking on wages in Russia. Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey and regressions with individual fixed effect we examine the effect of smoking intensity on wages. After the control for unobserved heterogeneity our findings show the statistical insignificance of coefficients on tobacco consumption intensity for men. On this basis we are able to assume the absence of causal explanation of the wage gap between male smokers and non-smokers. Estimates for women dont allow us to make the same statement but show the 9.2% wage gain of heavy smokers.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.