Huge computer networks composed of infected machines so called botnets are currently the one of the most dangerous threats for global society. Botnets are a brilliant tool for organizing distributed denial of service attacks, sending spam and phishing email, stealing sensitive information and money from various accounts. Hackers create botnets from any kind of electronic devices connected to the Internet. The most widely used devices are: personal computers with windows operating system, smartphones with Android OS, IoT devices with public IP addresses and open vulnerabilities (IPTV cameras, for example). There are a lot of options for botnet hiring on the darknet. It is possible to hire a botnet, buy a builder kit or any other service in hacker-to-hacker manner. The easiest way to build a botnet is a creation of central server for spreading commands and creation of clients (bots) that will connect to this server. Such botnets are so called traditional botnets. Traditional botnets with centralized command and control mechanism are vulnerable to the wide range of attacks. For example, if one particular bot is captured by the security analyst the IP address of command and control server will be compromised with very high probability. Without central command and control server botnet is useless because the malefactor is unable to spread commands over infected network. In order to make botnets more robust and steady the peer-to-peer botnet architecture was introduced. P2P architectures could be divided on 3 main categories: pure, moderated and hybrid. The aim of the current papers is covering peer to peer botnets and its architecture.
Sharing economy - the new and contradictory phenomenon, which is caused by the appearance of the beginning of widespread use of new technologies in business. Despite its recent origin, it is characterized by the rapid development of sharing economy, which is the cause of increased media attention to the phenomenon. However, in the academic community interested in the comprehensive study of this economic system is just beginning to emerge. The article attempts to highlight the sharing economy in a separate category of economic analysis, consider its main characteristics and activities.
This work studies the possibility of using a widely adopted peer-to-peer (P2P) data transmission protocol named BitTorrent for the purpose of building a data storage and distribution system that would allow numerous institutions to access vast unstructured volumes of scientic data. We discuss the practical efficiency of using this technology depending on the typical file sizes and readily available software, the ratio of read and write operations, computational power available at the tracker server, the number of mirrors and simultaneously connected clients.
In the conditions of accelerated globalization and high speed of technological progress, it becomes vitally important for investors, banks and other participants of the financial market to use innovations in their kind of activity to increase profits. Otherwise, they can be defeated before their competitors. In view of the above situation, the author decided to carry out a research paper on the topic "Bitcoin as a breakthrough innovation of the 21st century". The article is devoted to the study of the Crypto-currency as a derivative of the technology from the "Blochane" innovation. The main objective of the study is to define the investment appeal of the crypto currency both in general and in particular - Bitcoin. The subject of the study is Bitcoin, and the object of research is the technology of P2P data exchange. The main method of studying Bitcoin is the historical analysis, on the basis of which the cause-effect relationships affecting the Bitcoin exchange rate to the dollar were searched. Also, a quantum-economic analysis was made showing the state of the subject of research to date. Moreover, it was presented a comparison of the fiat currencies and the first crypto currency. The author also analyzed the dynamics of changes in the level of interest of the population in crypto currency Bitcoin and the dynamics of the change in the rate of Bitcoin to the dollar. Based on the analysis done, the author came to a number of conclusions, the main ones of which are: Bitcoin is a test model of a new concept of electronic money transfer; In the near future it is necessary to expect the emergence of national crypto-currencies; The potential of technology "Blokchayne" can radically change the accounting and tax reporting of legal entities.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
It is well-known that the class of sets that can be computed by polynomial size circuits is equal to the class of sets that are polynomial time reducible to a sparse set. It is widely believed, but unfortunately up to now unproven, that there are sets in EXPNP, or even in EXP that are not computable by polynomial size circuits and hence are not reducible to a sparse set. In this paper we study this question in a more restricted setting: what is the computational complexity of sparse sets that are selfreducible? It follows from earlier work of Lozano and Torán (in: Mathematical systems theory, 1991) that EXPNP does not have sparse selfreducible hard sets. We define a natural version of selfreduction, tree-selfreducibility, and show that NEXP does not have sparse tree-selfreducible hard sets. We also construct an oracle relative to which all of EXP is reducible to a sparse tree-selfreducible set. These lower bounds are corollaries of more general results about the computational complexity of sparse sets that are selfreducible, and can be interpreted as super-polynomial circuit lower bounds for NEXP.