Грамотность «царедворцев» в эпоху Петра I
The paper analyzes the courtiers’ literacy according to the first mass data nobility inspection («smotr shlyahetstva») of 1721–1722. The author clarifies the concept of the «tsaredvortsy» (courtiers) in the context of different self-identification of Muskovite rank-holders, as well as in terms of the government’s perception of the group of rank-holders in military and garrison service. The new term «authentic literacy» is proposed to define the understanding of literacy by people of the past. The author has determined the percentage of courtiers’ literacy and their age after studying their signatures in the documents of the inspection (the “skazki”) and in the arrival registration books. The article gives examples of models of teaching courtiers’ children. The author offers some elements of a methodology to clarify the adequacy of literacy data obtained while studying signatures in official documents.